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Dolichophis jugularis (LINNAEUS, 1758)

IUCN Red List - Dolichophis jugularis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesDolichophis jugularis asianus (BOETTGER 1880)
Dolichophis jugularis jugularis (LINNAEUS 1758) 
Common NamesE: Large Whip Snake
G: Pfeilnatter, Jochnatter 
SynonymColuber jugularis LINNAEUS 1758: 225
Coluber jugularis cypriacus ZINNER 1972: 21
Coluber jugularis — KAHL et al. 1980: 232
Coluber jugularis — SCHÄTTI & WILSON 1986
Hierophis jugularis — SCHÄTTI 1988
Haemorrhois jugularis — WELCH
Hierophis jugularis — NAGY et al. 2004
Hierophis jugularis — KUMLUTAS et al. 2004
Dolichophis jugularis — NAGY et al. 2004
Coluber jugularis — THIEME 2005
Coluber (s.l.) jugularis — VENCHI & SINDACO 2006
Dolichophis jugularis — NAGY 2010 (pers. comm.)
Dolichophis jugularis zinneri CATTANEO 2012
Dolichophis jugularis zinneri — BÖHME 2014: 162
Dolichophis jugularis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 242
Dolichophis mesopotamicus AFRASIAB, MOHAMMAD & HUSSEIN 2016 (nom. dub.)
Dolichophis jugularis cypriacus — SCHNEIDER 2020

Dolichophis jugularis asianus (BOETTGER 1880)
Zamenis viridiflavus var. asiana BOETTGER 1880: 151
Zamenis gemonensis asianus — BARBOUR 1914: 89
Zamenis gemonensis var. asianus — BOULENGER 1920
Coluber jugularis asianus — MÜLLER & WETTSTEIN 1933
Coluber jugularis asianus — SCHMIDT 1939
Coluber jugularis asianus — MIENIS 1986
Coluber jugularis asianus — DISI et al. 2004
Coluber jugularis asianus — AL-QURAN 2009 
DistributionTurkey [O. Cetin, pers. comm.], Greece (Aegean islands, e.g. Agathonisi, Cyprus),
Israel, Syria, N Iraq, N Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Kuwait

Type locality: “Aegypto”; restricted to SW Turkey, areas around Selcuk and Ephesus, by ZINNER 1972.

asianus: Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Israel; Type locality: not specifically given.

cypriacus: Cyprus

zinneri: Type locality: "Laerma': Rhodos Island, southern Dodekanes archipelago, Greece, elevation 300 m a.s.l.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: ZFMK 92945, formerly MAFR (Museum Adolphi Friderici Regis)
Lectotype: SMF 18189 (formerly 7397a) [asianus]
Holotype: NMW 15186:3 (fide Zinner 1972, but not listed in type catalogue by Tiedemann et al. 1994 nor Tiedemann & Grillitsch 1999) [cypriacus]
Holotype: ZFMK 92945. adult male, collected by A. CATTANEO. 27 May 2005; paratypes: CATTANEO private collection, Roma [zinneri] 
DiagnosisDescription: “Schwanz lang und fein ausgezogen, dadurch trotz der Größe schlank wirkend. Kopf im Verhältnis zum Körper relativ klein. Markante Augen mit runder Pupille. Körperschuppen glatt. 19 Rückenschuppenreihen um die Körpermitte. 1 Zügelschild (Loreale). 2 Voraugenschilder (Praeocularia), das untere sehr klein und schuppenförmig, 2 (selten 3) Hinteraugenschilder (Postocularia). 1 Unteraugenschildchen (Suboculare) am Vorderrand des Auges. 8 (gelegentlich 7) Oberlippenschilder (Supralabialia), das 4. und 5. an den Augenunterrand stoßend.Die Schilder der Kopfoberseite sind besonders groß.

Färbung: Grundfarbe sehr dunkel, braunschwarz. Oft treten gänzlich schwarz gefärbte Tiere auf (Melanismus). Körperschuppen meist in der Mitte mit hellem Längsstrich, wodurch der Körper wie bei der Kaspischen Springnatter (Dolichophis caspius) fein längs gestrichelt wirken kann. Bauch und Kehle lachs- bis dunkelrot, an den Seiten mit schwarzer Fleckung. Jungtiere mit lebhafter Fleckenzeichnung, die sich im Lauf der ersten 3-4 Lebensjahre verliert (Gruber 2009: 73)

Ontogenetic change: juveniles are conspicuously mottled or blotched; this patterns disappears within the first 3 or 4 years. 
CommentSynonymy: Dolichophis mesopotamicus was described in a short paper with few details, fuzzy photos, and no DNA data. We requested more data from the authors but did not get any and hence decided to keep it as a nomen dubium for the time being until more information becomes available.

Subspecies: Dolichophis jugularis cypriacus (ZINNER 1972) was described in a thesis and is not generally recognized.

Distribution: Reported from Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, Yugoslavia, Hungary but unconfirmed. Not listed by ENGELMANN et al. (1993). For a map see Sindaco et al. 2013. 
References
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