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Dolichophis schmidti (NIKOLSKY, 1909)

IUCN Red List - Dolichophis schmidti - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common NamesG: Schmidts Pfeilnatter, Rote Springnatter
Russian: Краснобрюхий полоз 
SynonymColuber schmidti NIKOLSKY 1909
Coluber jugularis schmidti — MÜLLER 1939
Hierophis schmidti — SCHÄTTI 1988
Hierophis schmidti — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Coluber schmidti — FRYNTA et al. 1997
Coluber schmidti — SZCZERBAK 2003
Hierophis schmidti — NAGY et al. 2004
Dolichophis schmidti — NAGY et al. 2004
Coluber (s.l.) schmidti — VENCHI & SINDACO 2006
Dolichophis schmidti — NAGY 2010 (pers. comm.)
Dolichophis schmidti — WALLACH et al. 2014: 242 
DistributionSoviet Union (Caucasus), S Dagestan (S Russia), Azerbaijan, Armenia, N Iran, Iraq (?), Jordan,
Turkey, Republic of Georgia, Turkmenistan

Type locality: Bolgar-Chay river, Mugan steppe, S Azerbaijan (Eschaktchi in Lenkoran region and Tbilisi).  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesLectotype: MNKhU (also as MNKNU) 14935, formerly ZCIKU 268 (designated by VEDMEDERYA et al. 2009) 
DiagnosisDescription: “Rostrot bis ziegelrot gefärbte Schlange, die der Kaspischen Springnatter (Dolichophis caspius) ähnelt. Körperschuppen mit dunkler, roter Mitte und hellen Rändern, dadurch entsteht der Eindruck einer feinen, hellen Längsstreifung. Bauch leuchtend rot.

Ähnelt der Kaspischen Springnatter. Kopf wenig vom Körper abgesetzt. Auge mit runder Pupille. Körperschuppen glatt.19 Rückenschuppenreihen um die Körpermitte., Zügelschild (Loreale), 1 selten 2 Voraugenschilder (Praeocularia), 2 Hinteraugenschilder (Postocularia). 1 Unteraugenschildchen (Suboculare) am Vorderrand des Auges. 8 (manchmal 9) Oberlippenschilder (Supralabialia), das 4. und 5. an den Augenunterrand stoßend.

Färbung: Grundfarbe rotbraun bis ziegelrot. Charakteristisch ist die Zeichnung der Körperschuppen (Rücken und Flanken): Die Schuppenmitte ist rot und dunkel, der obere und untere Rand hell gefärbt, dadurch entsteht der Eindruck einer ganz feinen Längsstreifung. Jungtiere sind dunkel gefleckt; im vorderen Körperteil ordnen sich die Flecken zu Querbändern. Diese Jugendzeichnung kann lange erhalten bleiben (bis zu einer Länge von etwa 140 cm). Der Bauch ist leuchtend korallen- bis kirschrot mit einem rosafarbenen Permuttglanz (Gruber 2009: 75)

Ontogenetic change: juveniles have dark blotches, but that pattern may remain, at least weakly, until the snake reaches about 140 cm in length. 
CommentDistribution: For a map see Sindaco et al. 2013. 
EtymologyProbably named after Professor P Y Schmidt (1872-1949), an ichthyologist at the Zoological Museum and Institute in St Petersburg. In 1904 he published “Fishes of Eastern Seas of the Russian Empire”. 
References
  • Akman, B.; M. Z. Yildiz et al. 2018. On the herpetofauna of the East Anatolian Province of Bitlis (Turkey) (Amphibia; Reptilia). Herpetozoa 31 (1/2): 69 - 82 - get paper here
  • Al-Quran, S. 2009. The Herpetofauna of the Southern Jordan. American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 6 (4): 385-391 [this journal has a dubious record, see http://goo.gl/81SBPv]
  • Arakelyan, Marine S.; Felix D. Danielyan, Claudia Corti, Roberto Sindaco, and Alan E. Leviton 2011. The Herpetofauna of Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh. SSAR, Salt Lake City, 154 pp. [ISBN: 978-0-916984-84-7.]
  • Baker, Mohammad Abu, Lina Rifai, Ulrich Joger, Zoltan T. Nagy, Michael Wunk and Zuhair Amr 2002. Occurrence of Coluber (Hierophis) schmidti Nikolsky, 1909 in Jordan (Squamata: Serpentes: Colubridae). Herpetozoa 15 (1/2):29-36 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Davis, D.D. 1959. Karl Patterson Schmidt, 1890-1957. Copeia 1959 (3): 189-192 - get paper here
  • Dunaev E.A., Orlova V.F. 2017. Amphibians and reptiles of Russia. Atlas and determination. 2nd. ed. Moscow: Phyton XXI, 328 p
  • Ehrlich, Klaus 2008. Systematik und Taxonomie der europäischen Zornnattern - eine Zusammenfassung. Ophidia 2 (1): 2-18 - get paper here
  • Engelmann, W.E. et al. 1993. Lurche und Kriechtiere Europas. Neumann Verlag (Radebeul, Germany), 440 pp.
  • Frynta,D. et al. 1997. Results of the Czech biological expedition to Iran. Part 1. Notes on the distribution of amphibians and reptiles. Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem. 61: 3-17
  • Gruber, U. 2009. Die Schlangen Europas, 2. Aufl. Kosmos Naturführer, 266 pp.
  • Leviton,A.E.; Anderson,S.C.; Adler, K.; Minton,S.A. 1992. Handbook to Middle East Amphibians and Reptiles. SSAR, Oxford, Ohio (Contr. to Herpetol. No. 8), 1-252
  • Nagy, Z.T., J.F. Schmidtler, U. Joger & M. Wink 2003. Systematik der Zwergnattern (Reptilia: Colubridae: Eirenis) und verwandter Gruppen anhand von DNA-Sequenzen und morphologischen Daten. Salamandra 39 (3-4): 149-168 - get paper here
  • Nagy, Z.T.; R. Lawson, U. Joger, M. Wink 2004. Molecular systematics of racers, whipsnakes and relatives (Reptilia: Colubridae) using mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 42 (3): 223-233 - get paper here
  • Nikolsky, A. M. 1909. Novae species reptiliem e Caucaso [in Russian]. Tiflis Mitt. Kaukas. Mus. 4: 301-306 - get paper here
  • Rajabizadeh, M. 2017. Snakes of Iran. [in Farsi] Tehran: Iranshenasi, 496 pp. - get paper here
  • RASTEGAR-POUYANI, NASRULLAH; HAJI GHOLI KAMI, MEHDI RAJABZADEH, SOHEILA SHAFIEI AND STEVEN CLEMENT ANDERSON 2008. Annotated Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles of Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 4 (1): 7-30
  • Rhadi, Fadhel Aabbas;Rihab Ghaleb Mohammed, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani,Eskandar Rastegar-Pouyani, Seyyed Saeed Hosseinian Yousefkhani 2017. On the Snake Fauna of Central and Southern Iraq and Some Zoogeographic Remarks. Russ. J. Herpetol. 24 (4): 251-266 - get paper here
  • Scerbak,N.N. [= Szczerbak] & Böhme,W. 1993. Coluber schmidti - Schmidts Pfeilnatter. In: Böhme,W. (ed.), Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas, Band 3/I., Schlangen (Serpentes) I. Aula-Verlag Wiesbaden, pp. 167-176
  • Schätti, B. 1988. Systematik und Evolution der Schlangengattung Hierophis Fitzinger, 1843. PhD Diss. Univ. Zürich 1988
  • Sindaco, R.; Alberto Venchi & Cristina Grieco 2013. The Reptiles of the Western Palearctic, Volume 2: Annotated Checklist and Distributional Atlas of the Snakes of Europe, North Africa, Middle East and Central Asia, with an Update to Volume 1. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 543 pp. - get paper here
  • Sindaco, Roberto; Alberto Venchi, Giuseppe M. Carpaneto, Marco A. Bologna 2000. The Reptiles of Anatolia: a Checklist and Zoogeographical analysis. Biogeographia, 21-2000: 441-554. - get paper here
  • Szczerbak, N.N. 2003. Guide to the Reptiles of the Eastern Palearctic. Krieger, Malabar, FL, 260 pp. - get paper here
  • Tuniyev, B.S.; N.L. Orlov, N.B. Ananjeva and A.L. Aghasyan 2019. Snakes of the Caucasus: taxonomic diversity, distribution, conservation. St. Petersburg, Moscow. KMK Scientific Press. 2019. 276 pp. - get paper here
  • Venchi, Alberto and Roberto Sindaco 2006. Annotated checklist of the reptiles of the Mediterranean countries, with keys to species identification. Part 2 -Snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "G. Doria", Genova, XCVIII: 259-364
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Yildiz, Mehmet Zülfü; Nasit Igci, Bahadir Akman, Bayram Göcmen 2018. Results of a herpetological survey in the Province of Ağrı (East Anatolia, Turkey) (Anura; Testudines; Squamata). Herpetozoa 31 (1/2): 47 - 60 - get paper here
 
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