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Draco cornutus GÜNTHER, 1864

IUCN Red List - Draco cornutus - Data Deficient, DD

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Draconinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymDraco cornutus GÜNTHER 1864: 125
Draco cornutus — BOULENGER 1885: 258
Draco affinis BARTLETT 1895: 80 (non Draco affinis BAUMANN 1913)
Draco gracilis BARBOUR 1903: 59
Draco cornutus — DE ROOIJ 1915: 72
Draco gracilis — DE ROOIJ 1915: 73
Draco affinis — DE ROOIJ 1915: 88
Draco cornutus — TAYLOR 1922
Draco affinis — HENNIG 1936: 219 (?)
Draco spilopterus cornutus — HENNIG 1936: 183
Draco spilopterus cornutus — WERMUTH 1967: 53
Draco affinis — WERMUTH 1967: 46
Draco spilopterus cornutus — MANTHEY 1983
Draco cornutus — MUSTERS 1983
Draco cornutus — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 175
Draco cornutus — MCGUIRE & KIEW 2001
Draco affinis — BARTS & WILMS 2003
Draco cornutus — MANTHEY 2008: 114 
DistributionIndonesia (Borneo, Sumatra, Java, Natuna), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak)

Type locality: Borneo.

affinis: Indonesia (Borneo); Type locality: Borneo  
TypesHolotype: MCZ R-6713 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Species of small to moderate size (maximum snout-vent length 85 mm); nostril directed outward; series of enlarged, keeled scales forming a A-shaped figure on the snout; usually three median teeth in upper jaw; supralabials 8-10, smooth; a thornlike scale on thesupraciliaryedge; tympanum usually coverd with smooth skin; gular pouch without, lateral pouches with enlarged scales; males a n d females with a short nuchal crest; dorsals 140-177, smooth, subequal; usually six ribs in patagium; hindlimbs short (0.64-0.77 times the distance between the limbs); no caudal crest (Musters 1983: 19).

More detailed description in Musters 1983: 19.

See also description in De Rooij 1915: 72. 
CommentSynonymy partly after WERMUTH 1967 and MANTHEY 2008. INGER (1983) synonymized D. cornutus with D. volans. Revalidated by HONDA et al. (1999). MUSTERS (1983) suspected that D. affinis may be a synonym of D. volans sumatranus which is now considered as a synonym of Draco palawanensis. Probably represents a junior synonym of D. cornutus (fide MCGUIRE & KIEW 2001). According to BARTLETT (1895) D. affinis is “similar to D. cornutus, but without large spine-like scale above the eye. Gular appendage very small, in females almost absent.”

Distribution: listed for the Philippine islands by Taylor 1922: 114

The original description is available online (see link below).

According to Honda et al. (1999) male D. cornutus were invariably vivid green in dorsal ground color. Their patagium usually had a more or less reddish outer margin and a number of black spots that form a few oblique bands distally and several transverse bands proximally. However, some individuals lacked such reddish margin in the patagium. Male D. volans, on the other hand, were bronze or light brown in dorsal ground color with a light green patch confined to the head and neck. Their patagium was dark brown or black with white spots. Female D. cornutus were brownish tan in ground color. Their patagium usually had reddish margin and black spots similar to the conspecific males. Coloration of female D. volans was similar to that of conspecific males. In both taxa, ventral ground colors of males were bluish grey, whereas those of females were yellowish white or white. Gular pouch of male D. cornutus was greenish white with orange yellow distal tip and without black dots at the base. On the other hand, gular pouch of male D. volans was largely milky white, but with lemon yellow margin distally and black dots at the base. 
  • Barbour, T. 1903. A new species of flying lizard from Sarawak. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 16: 59-60 - get paper here
  • Bartlett, E. 1895. The crocodiles and lizards of Borneo in the Sarawak Museum, with descriptions of supposed new species, and the variation of colours in the several species during life. Journal of the Straits Branch Royal Asiatic Society Singapore, 28: 73-96.
  • Barts, M. & Wilms, T. 2003. Die Agamen der Welt. Draco 4 (14): 4-23 - get paper here
  • Baumann, E. 1913. Reptilien und Batrachier des Berner Naturhistorischen Museums aus dem Battak-Gebirge von West-Sumatra. Zool. Jb. Syst., Jena, 34: 257-278. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • Das , I. 2004. Lizards of Borneo. Natural History Publications, Kota Kinabalu, Borneo
  • Das, I. & Yaakob, N. 2007. Status of knowledge of the Malaysian herpetofauna. In Status of biological diversity in Malaysia & threat assessment of plant species in Malaysia. in: L. S. L. Chua, L. G. Kirton & L. G. Saw (eds.), Status of biological diversity in Malaysia & threat assessment of plant species in Malaysia. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kepong, pp. 31-81
  • de Rooij, N. de 1915. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. I. Lacertilia, Chelonia, Emydosauria. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 384 pp. - get paper here
  • Goldberg, S.R. 2017. Draco cornutus (Horned Flying Lizard) Reproduction. Herpetological Review 48 (4): 846 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1864. The Reptiles of British India. London (Taylor & Francis), xxvii + 452 pp. - get paper here
  • Hennig, W. 1936. Revision der Gattung Draco (Agamidae). Temminckia, Leiden 1: 153-220
  • Honda, Masanao, Mari Kobayashi, Joi-Sen Yong, Hidetoshi Ota and Tsutomu Hikida. 1999. Taxonomic re-evaluation of the status of Draco cornutus Günther, 1864 (Reptilia: Agamidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 20 (2): 195-210 - get paper here
  • Honda, Masanao; Ota, Hidetoshi; Kobayashi, Mari; Nabhitabhata,Jarujin; Yong, Soi-Sen & Hikida,Tsutomu 1999. Phylogenetic relationships of the flying lizards, genus Draco (Reptilia: Agamidae). Zoological Science 16: 535-549 - get paper here
  • Malkmus, R.; Manthey, U.; Vogel, G. Hoffmann, P. & Kosuch, J. 2002. Amphibians and reptiles of Mount Kinabalu (North Borneo). A.R.G. Ganther Verlag, Rugell, 404 pp.
  • Manthey U 2008. Agamid lizards of Southern Asia, Draconinae 1. Terralog 7, 160 pp.
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • Manthey,U. 1983. Exkursion am Mt. Kinabalu (4101 m), Nordborneo, Teil 3: Checkliste der Herpetofauna oberhalb 600 m ü. NN. Herpetofauna 5 (23): 20-31 - get paper here
  • McGuire, Jimmy A. & Heang, Kiew Bong 2001. Phylogenetic systematics of Southeast Asian flying lizards (Iguania: Agamidae: Draco) as inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 72: 203–229 - get paper here
  • Musters, C. J. M. 1983. Taxonomy of the genus Draco L. (Agamidae, Lacertilia, Reptilia). Zoologische Verhandelingen (199): 1-120 - get paper here
  • Smedley, N. 1931. On some reptiles and a frog from the Natuna Islands. Bull. Raffles Mus. No 5: 46-48
  • Taylor, E.H. 1922. The lizards of the Philippine Islands. Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Bureau of Science, Government of the Philippine Islands, Manila, Publication no. 17: 269 pp. - get paper here
  • TEYNIÉ, ALEXANDRE; PATRICK DAVID, & ANNEMARIE OHLER 2010. Note on a collection of Amphibians and Reptiles from Western Sumatra (Indonesia), with the description of a new species of the genus Bufo. Zootaxa 2416: 1–43 - get paper here
  • YANG Jian‐Huan, Joanne LI, LI Fei, Bosco CHAN 2018. Recent amphibians and reptiles observed at Matang Wildlife Centre, Sarawak, Borneo. SEAVR 2018: 062‐068
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