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Draco maximus BOULENGER, 1893

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Draconinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Great Flying Dragon, Giant Gliding Lizard
G: Grosser Flugdrache 
SynonymDraco maximus BOULENGER 1893: 522
Draco intermedius WERNER 1910 (fide HENNIG 1936)
Draco cryptotis DESPAX 1912
Draco maximus — DE ROOIJ 1915: 81
Draco cryptotis — DE ROOIJ 1915: 82
Draco intermedius — DE ROOIJ 1915: 86
Draco maximus — HENNIG 1936: 188
Draco maximus cryptotis — HENNIG 1936: 190
Draco maximus cryptotis — WERMUTH 1967: 52
Draco maximus maximus — GRANDISON 1972: 77
Draco maximus — MUSTERS 1983
Draco maximus — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 170
Draco maximus — MCGUIRE & KIEW 2001
Draco maximus — TEYNIÉ et al. 2010
Draco maximus — GRISMER & QUAH 2019 
DistributionW Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia (Sunda I, Sumatra, Natuna Island, Borneo)

cryptotis: Java; Type locality: “Archipel Malais”, restricted to Java by HENNIg 1936.

Type locality: Mount Dulit, Borneo (elevation 2000 f.h.)  
TypesType: BMNH 1946.8.13.41 (and possibly additional specimens). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Large species (maximum snout-vent length 145 mm); nostril directed upward; a more or less distinct series of scales forming alA-shaped figure on the snout; usually two median teeth in upper jaw; supralabials 13-16, smooth; no thornlike scale on supraciliary edge; tympanum partly covered with small scales or with small scales only; gular pouch without and lateral pouches with slightly enlarged scales; no nuchal crest; males with a nuchal fold; dorsals 226-269, subequal, smooth; six ribs in patagium; hindlimbs approximately as long as the distance between the limbs; no caudal crest (Musters 1983: 58).

More detailed description in Musters 1983: 58.

See also description in De Rooij 1915: 81 (including that of cryptotis on p. 82). 
CommentThis is one of the few Draco species in which males and females have similar or identical patagial coloration (i.e. the color of the membranes that covers the elongated ribs). 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Description of new reptiles and batrachians obtained in Borneo by Mr. C. Hose and Mr. A. Everett. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1893: 522-528 - get paper here
  • Das , I. 2004. Lizards of Borneo. Natural History Publications, Kota Kinabalu, Borneo
  • de Rooij, N. de 1915. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. I. Lacertilia, Chelonia, Emydosauria. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 384 pp. - get paper here
  • Denzer, W. & MANTHEY, U. 1991. A nominal checklist of the lizards inhabiting Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Raffles Bull. Zool., 39(2): 309-322 - get paper here
  • Despax, R. 1912. Sur trois collections de reptiles et de batraciens provenant de l’Archipel Malais. Bull. Mus. natl. Hist. nat. Paris 18: 198-205 - get paper here
  • Goldberg, Stephen R. and L. Lee Grismer. 2015. Notes on reproduction of seven species of Draco: D. abbreviatus, D. blanfordii, D. formosus, D. maculatus, D. maximus, D. sumatranus, D. taeniopterus (Squamata: Agamidae) from South-east Asia. Hamadryad 37 (1-2): 117-121
  • Grandison, A.G.C. 1972. The Gunong Benom Expedition 1967. 5. Reptiles and amphibians of Gunong Benom with a description of a new species of Macrocalamus. Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), London, 23: 45-101.
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; & EVAN S. H. QUAH 2019. An updated and annotated checklist of the lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, and their adjacent archipelagos. Zootaxa 4545 (2): 230–248 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L. 2011. Lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and their adjacent archipelagos. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 728 pp. [review in Herp. Rev. 43: 155] - get paper here
  • Hennig, W. 1936. Revision der Gattung Draco (Agamidae). Temminckia, Leiden 1: 153-220
  • Inger,R.F. 1983. Morphological and ecological variation in the flying lizards (genus Draco). Fieldiana: Zoology, New Ser. 18: vi, 1-35 - get paper here
  • Malkmus, R.; Manthey, U.; Vogel, G. Hoffmann, P. & Kosuch, J. 2002. Amphibians and reptiles of Mount Kinabalu (North Borneo). A.R.G. Ganther Verlag, Rugell, 404 pp.
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • McGuire, Jimmy A. & Heang, Kiew Bong 2001. Phylogenetic systematics of Southeast Asian flying lizards (Iguania: Agamidae: Draco) as inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 72: 203–229 - get paper here
  • McGuire, Jimmy A. and Robert Dudley 2011. The Biology of Gliding in Flying Lizards (Genus Draco) and their Fossil and Extant Analogs. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 51 (6): 983–990 - get paper here
  • Srichairat, Nattawut; Pattanee Jantrarotai, Prateep Duengkaeb, Yodchaiy Chuaynkern 2017. Identification key to species of the flying lizard genus Draco Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata: Agamidae) in Thailand. Agriculture and Natural Resources - get paper here
  • TEYNIÉ, ALEXANDRE; PATRICK DAVID, & ANNEMARIE OHLER 2010. Note on a collection of Amphibians and Reptiles from Western Sumatra (Indonesia), with the description of a new species of the genus Bufo. Zootaxa 2416: 1–43 - get paper here
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