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Duberria lutrix (LINNAEUS, 1758)

IUCN Red List - Duberria lutrix - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaPseudoxyrhophiidae(Amplorhininae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesDuberria lutrix abyssinica (BOULENGER 1894)
Duberria lutrix atriventris (STERNFELD 1912)
Duberria lutrix basilewskyi SKELTON-BOURGEOIS 1961
Duberria lutrix currylindahli LAURENT 1956
Duberria lutrix lutrix (LINNAEUS 1758) 
Common NamesE: Common Slug Eater 
SynonymColuber Lutrix LINNAEUS 1758: 216
Calamaria arctiventris SCHLEGEL 1837: 131
Duberria arctiventris — FITZINGER (fide FILIPPI 1840)
Homalosoma lutrix — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 110
Cyclophis catenatus THEOBALD 1868 (fide BOULENGER 1890)
Homalosoma lutrix — ANGEL 1925
Homalosoma lutrix — DE WITTE 1933
Duberria lutrix lutrix — BOYCOTT 1992
Duberria lutrix — BROADLEY 1998
Duberria lutrix — MATTISON 2007: 100
Duberria lutrix — WALLACH et al. 2014: 247
Duberria lutrix lutrix — BATES et al. 2014: 385
Duberria lutrix — SPAWLS et al. 2018: 418

Duberria lutrix abyssinica (BOULENGER 1894)
Homalosoma abyssinicum BOULENGER 1894: 276
Duberria lutrix abyssinica — LOVERIDGE 1944: 139
Duberria lutrix abyssinica — SKELTON-BOURGEOIS 1961: 334

Duberria lutrix atriventris (STERNFELD 1912)
Homalosoma lutrix var. atriventris STERNFELD 1912: 271
Duberria lutrix atriventris — PITMAN 1974
Duberria lutrix atriventris — BROADLEY & HOWELL 1991: 26

Duberria lutrix basilewskyi SKELTON-BOURGEOIS 1961
Duberria lutrix basilewskyi SKELTON-BOURGEOIS 1961: 334
Duberria lutrix basilewskyi — BROADLEY & HOWELL 1991: 26

Duberria lutrix currylindahli LAURENT 1956: 146
Duberria lutrix curry-lindahli — SKELTON-BOURGEOIS 1961: 334
Duberria lutrix currylindahli — GREENBAUM & KUSAMBA 2012: 253 
DistributionS/E Republic of South Africa (Eastern Cape etc.), Swaziland, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, N/E/S Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire).

Type locality: “Indiis” (in error)

atriventris: Highlands of Uganda, Kenya and N Tanzania west through Rwanda to NE Zaire. Type locality: Kissenje = Kisenyi, Rwanda.

basilewskyi: Ngorongoro north to the Kenya highlands (east of the rift valley); Type locality: Ngorongoro (subalpine grassland at 2600 m), Tanzania.

currylindahli: Type locality: Haute Lubitshako, 1900-2000 m elevation, Terr. de Fizi, Kivu.  
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesType: NRM = NHRM fide Hughes (fide V. Wallach, pers. comm.), but not designated, present location unknown
Holotype: RMCA (= MRAC) (was RGMC) 21901-903 [basilewskyi]
Holotype: RMCA (= MRAC) (was RGMC) 18224, female [currylindahli]
Holotype: BMNH 1946.1.5.64, collected by W.T. Blanford [abyssinica]
Holotype: ZMB, cat. no. unknown, collected by Schubotz in 1907–1908 [atriventris] 
Diagnosis 
CommentDuberria shirana (Boulenger, 1894) may be a subspecies of D. lutrix or a valid species (as listed in a separate entry).

Type species: Coluber arctiventris Daudin (= Coluber duberria Merrem = Coluber lutrix Linnaeus) is the type species of the genus Duberria FITZINGER 1826 (by tautonymy, see Loveridge, 1944: 138). 
References
  • Angel, Fernand 1925. Résultats Scientifiques. Vertebrata. Reptiles et Batraciens. [Mabuia (Mabuiopsis) jeanneli, Lygosoma graueri quinquedigitata, Ablepharus massaiensis]. In: Voyage de Ch. Alluaud et R. Jeannel en Afrique Orientale (1911-1912). - Paris, 2: 1-63.
  • Bates, M.F.; Branch, W.R., Bauer, A.M.; Burger, M., Marais, J.; Alexander, G.J. & de Villliers, M.S. (eds.) 2014. Atlas and Red List of the Reptiles of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland. Suricata 1. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, 512 pp.
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • Boycott, R.C. 1992. An Annotated Checklist of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Swaziland. The Conservation Trust of Swaziland - get paper here
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  • Broadley, D. G. & HOWELL, K. M. 1991. A check list of the reptiles of Tanzania, with synoptic keys. Syntarsus 1: 1—70
  • Broadley, D.G. 1958. Serpents, Colubridae: Duberria lutrix rhodesiana n. subsp. Occ. Pap. Natn. Mus. S. Rhodesia (Ser. B) 3: 215-216
  • Broadley, D.G. 1959. The herpetology of Southern Rhodesia. Part I--the snakes. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 120 (1): 1-100 [reprint 1972] - get paper here
  • Broadley, D.G. 1962. On some reptile collections from the North-Western and North-Eastern Districts of Southern Rhodesia 1958-1961, with descriptions of four new lizards. Occ. Pap. Nat. Mus. South. Rhodesia 26 (B): 787-843
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  • Haagner, G. V. 1987. Life History Note: Duberria lutrix lutrix: Reproduction. J. Herp. Assoc. Africa (33): 36-36 - get paper here
  • Haagner, G.V.; Branch, W.R. 1995. Life History Notes - Duberria lutrix lutrix. African Herp News (22): 47-48 - get paper here
  • Haagner, G.V.; Branch, W.R. 1996. Life History Notes - Duberria lutrix lutrix. African Herp News (25): 41-41 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1865. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 13. Livraison. [Homalosoma mite]. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Kulenkampff K, Van Zyl F, Klaus S, Daniels SR 2019. Molecular evidence for cryptic species in the common slug eating snake Duberria lutrix lutrix (Squamata, Lamprophiidae) from South Africa. ZooKeys 838: 133-154 - get paper here
  • Largen, M.J.; Spawls, S. 2010. Amphibians and Reptiles of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 694 pp.
  • Largen,M.J. & Rasmussen,J.B. 1993. Catalogue of the snakes of Ethiopia (Reptilia Serpentes), including identification keys. Tropical Zoology 6: 313-434 - get paper here
  • Laurent, R.F. 1956. Contribution à l'herpetologie de la région des Grandes Lacs de l'Afrique centrale. Ann. Mus. Roy. Congo Belge (Sci. Zool.), 48: 1-390
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  • Loveridge, A. 1936. African reptiles and amphibians in the Field Museum of Natural History. Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Chicago, 22 (1): 1-122 - get paper here
  • Loveridge, Arthur 1929. East African reptiles and amphibians in the United States National Museum. Bull. US Natl. Mus. (151): 1-135 - get paper here
  • Lyakurwa, J.V., Howell, K.M., Munishi, L.K., Treydte, A.C. 2019. Uzungwa Scarp Nature Forest Reserve; a unique hotspot for reptiles in Tanzania. Acta Herpetologica 14 (1): 3-14 - get paper here
  • Lyakurwa, John Valentine 2017. The Reptiles of the Uzungwa Scarp Forest Reserve (USFR): An Updated Checklist with Notes on Dagger-Tooth Vine Snake Xyelodontophis uluguruensis. Journal of East African Natural History 106(2):57-65. - get paper here
  • Mattison, Chris 1995. The Encyclopedia of Snakes. New York: Facts on File, 256 pp.
  • McCartney, C. J. 1993. Life History Notes - Duberria lutrix lutrix. J. Herp. Assoc. Africa (42): 39-39 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1938. Über eine herpetologische Sammlung aus dem Gebiete des Njarasa-Grabens Ost-Afrikas. Veröffentlichungen aus dem Deutschen Kolonial- und Übersee-Museum in Bremen 2 (1): 1-9 [no page numbers]
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Skelton-Bourgeois, M. 1961. Reptiles et Batraciens d’Afrique orientale. Rev. Zool. Bor. afr. 63: 309-338
  • Spawls, S.; Howell, K.; Drewes, R.C. & Ashe, J. 2002. A field guide to the reptiles of East Africa. Academic Press, 543 pp. [reviews in HR 34: 396 and Afr. J. Herp. 51; 147] - get paper here
  • Spawls, Steve; Kim Howell, Harald Hinkel, Michele Menegon 2018. Field Guide to East African Reptiles. Bloomsbury, 624 pp. - get paper here
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  • Sternfeld, R. 1912. IV. Zoologie II. Lfg. Reptilia. In: Schubotz., R. (ed.): Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Zentral-Afrika Expedition 1907- 1908, unter Führung A. Friedrichs, Herzogs zu Mecklenburg. Klinkhard und Biermann, Leipzig: 197-279 [published 1912, not 1913, as often cited, see Männel & Kucharzewski 2017] - get paper here
  • Venter, Jan A.; Werner Conradie 2015. A checklist of the reptiles and amphibians found in protected areas along the South African Wild Coast, with notes on conservation implications. Koedoe 57 (1): 1-25. doi: 10.4102/koedoe.v57i1.1247 - get paper here
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