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Echinosaura centralis DUNN, 1944

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymEchinosaura centralis DUNN 1944
Echinosaura centralis — VÁSQUEZ-RESTREPO et al. 2019 

Type locality: Muzo (Humbo) [Boyacá department, Colombia]’ and ‘Robledo (near Medellin) [Antioquia department, Colombia]. Neotype locality: Colombia, department of Antioquia, municipality of San Rafael, embalse Jaguas, Caño Girón (6° 23’ 54.672’ N, 75° 01’ 37.092’ W, 1275 m a.s.l.).  
TypesNeotype: MHUA-R 13332, an adult male, collected on 23 August 2017 by Juan D. Vásquez-Restrepo. Original type(s): MLS (8 specimens), destroyed or lost, probably during the fire of the MLS in 1948 (fide VÁSQUEZ-RESTREPO et al. 2019). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: The following data are based on 70 examined specimens (referred material listed in Supporting Information, Appendix SII). Echinosaura centralis possesses the following characteristics: (1) snout pointed; (2) internasal divided longitudinally (rarely single); (3) frontonasals paired; (4) frontal single and long (it extends up to the middle of the eyes); (5) frontoparietals paired; (6) supraoculars two or three, large; (7) supralabials 4–6 (usually five); (8) infralabials 3–5 (usually four); (9) postmental single; (10) large chin shields in one pair; (11) two paravertebral ridges, separated from each other by usually five or more small, irregular scales; (12) spine-like scales forming oblique lines on lateral surface of body; (13) ventral scales squared, usually keeled; (14) subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger 12–18; (15) subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe 20–27; (16) femoral pores per hind limb in males 4–9; (17) dorsal surface of tail with two parallel ridges, formed by a series of increasing in size scales from the anterior margin of each caudal segment; lateral surface of tail with more-developed scales forming longitudinal ridges (coded as ‘= pattern’); (18) subcaudals per caudal segment three (when tail is not regenerated); (19) dorsum brown or dark brown, relatively uniform, sometimes with yellowish marks and/or two spots more or less distinguishable at the base of tail; ventral surface of head and neck mainly light brown, except on the anterior part where there is a darker ground colour with some transverse cream blotches, extending to labial scales; ventral surface of body (including limbs) mainly light brown spotted with dark brown or cream, while that of tail almost completely dark. Colouration in preservative is darker in some specimens [VÁSQUEZ-RESTREPO et al. 2019]. 
CommentSynonymy: Uzzell 1965 synonymized E. centralis with E. h. palmeri, but VÁSQUEZ-RESTREPO et al. 2019 revalidated it. 
  • Dunn,E.R. 1944. Notes on Colombian herpetology, II. The lizard genus Echinosaura. Caldasia 2: 397-405 - get paper here
  • Fang, José M.; Juan D. Vásquez-Restrepo & Juan M. Daza 2020. Filling the gaps in a highly diverse Neotropical lizard lineage: a new and endemic genus of Cercosaurinae (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) with the description of two new species from the Northern Andes of Colombia. Systematics and Biodiversity, DOI: 10.1080/14772000.2020.1783714 - get paper here
  • Vásquez-Restrepo, Juan D; Roberto Ibáñez, Santiago J Sánchez-Pacheco, Juan M Daza 2019. Phylogeny, taxonomy and distribution of the Neotropical lizard genus Echinosaura (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae), with the recognition of two new genera in Cercosaurinae. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 189 (1): 287–314 - get paper here
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