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Echinosaura horrida BOULENGER, 1890

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Rough Teiid
S: Corcho de agua 
SynonymEchinosaura horrida BOULENGER 1890: 83
Echinosaura horrida — PETERS et al. 1970: 112
Echinosaura horrida — KÖHLER 2000: 101
Echinosaura horrida — KÖHLER 2004
Echinosaura horrida — VALENCIA-ZULETA et al. 2014
Echinosauria horrida — RIOS et al. 2011 (in error)
Echinosaura horrida — VÁSQUEZ-RESTREPO et al. 2019
Echinosaura horrida — YÁNEZ-MUÑOZ et al. 2021 
DistributionNW Ecuador, Colombia (incl. Valle del Cauca, Chocó), elevation in Ecuador: 200-860 m

Type locality: Ecuador.  
TypesSyntypes: BMNH 1946.8.31.60-61 (2) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus Echinosaura): Phenotypic characteristics of Echinosaura include: (1) dorsal scales heterogeneous, with small or granular, irregular scales intermixed with tubercular or spine-like scales; (2) dorsal surface of the head with large, symmetrical and paired scales anteriorly, and with irregular small scales posteriorly; (3) internasal single or divided; (4) frontonasals paired; (5) prefrontals usually absent; (6) frontal scale single or divided; (7) frontoparietals small, paired; (8) interparietal and postparietal scales not well defined (Fig. 10); (9) postmental large, single (reduced or absent in E. brachycephala); (10) chin shields usually large, in one pair (smaller in E. horrida, not differentiated in E. brachycephala) (Fig. 10); (11) lower eyelid developed, with a palpebral disc divided into several, unpigmented scales; (12) ventral scales squared (or rounded squares), not imbricated; (13) limbs pentadactyl, digits clawed; (14) males with well-developed femoral pores, females usually lacking them or having fewer femoral pores than males (if present, weakly developed or barely distinguishable). Morphological variation among species of Echinosaura is summarized in Table 2 and 3.
Echinosaura differs from other cercosaurines, except Centrosaura, Gelanesaurus, Neusticurus, Potamites and Rheosaurus, in having heterogeneous dorsal scalation. It differs from the other genera with heterogeneous dorsal scalation in having small or granular, irregular dorsal scales intermixed with tubercular or spine-like scales (vs. small irregular or granular dorsal scales intermixed with large or polygonal keeled scales), several irregular scales on the parietal region (vs. regular scales on parietal region) and usually one pair of large chin shields (vs. usually more than one pair of large chin shields). A comparison of Echinosaura and closely related and morphologically similar genera is given in Table 5 and Figure 9 in VÁSQUEZ-RESTREPO et al. 2019.

Diagnosis: Echinosaura horrida can be readily distinguished from the other two congeneric species by the presence in the dorsum if continuous and longitudinal rows of tubercles juxtaposed (no continuous in E. orcesi; 2-6 scales between longitudinal rows of tubercles in E. brachycephala) and three ventral scales per caudal segment (five to six in E. orcesi; four in E. brachycephala).
CommentSubspecies: The subspecies E. h. palmeri BOULENGER 1911 and E. h. panamensis BARBOUR 1924 are now considered as valid species.

Type species: Echinosaura horrida BOULENGER 1890: 83 is the type species of the genus Echinosaura BOULENGER 1890.

Key: see Uzzell 1965 for a key to the 3 species known at the time, horrida, panamensis, palmeri. He also presents a table with data for femoral pores, SVL/tail length, and subdigital lamellae.

Comparisons: YÁNEZ-MUÑOZ et al. 2021: 20 have a table of morphological characters across all species of Echinosaura. 
EtymologyAlthough not explicitly stated by Boulenger (1890), the name Echinosaura (gender feminine) is presumably formed from the Ancient Greek ἐχῖνος, echinos (hedgehog or urchin) and σαύρα, saura (lizard) – a spiny lizard. 
  • Barbour, Thomas 1924. Two noteworthy new lizards from Panama. Proc. New England zool. Club 9: 7-10
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1890. First report on additions to the lizard collection in the British Museum (Natural History). Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1890: 77—86 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1911. Descriptions of new reptiles from the Andes of South America, preserved in the British Museum. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (8) 7 (37): 19-25 - get paper here
  • Carrera, C. et al. 2009. Guía de Campo de los Pequeños Vertebrados del Distrito Metropolitano de Quito (DMQ). Publicación Miscelánea N° 5. Serie de Publicaciones del Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales (MECN) – Fondo Ambiental del MDMQ. 1-89 pp. Imprenta Nuevo Arte. Quito-Ecuador.
  • Carvajal-Cogollo, J.E.; L.E. Rojas-Murcia. & G. Cárdenas-Arévalo 2020. Reptiles del Caribe colombiano/ Reptiles of the Colombian Caribbean. Tunja: Editorial UPTC, 268 pp. - get paper here
  • CASTRO-HERRERA, FERNANDO; ANYELET VALENCIA-AGUILAR, DIEGO VILLAQUIRAN-Martínez 2012. Diversidad de Anfibios y Reptiles del Parque Nacional Natural Isla Gorgona. Universidad del Valle, Santiago de Cali, Valle del Cauca, 112 pp. - get paper here
  • Cortés Gómez, Angela María; Anyelet Valencia Aguilar, Diana Marcela Torres Domínguez, Lina María García Calderón, Diego Fernando Villaquirán Martínez, Andrea del Pilar Cáceres Franco, Fernando Castro Herrera 2010. Guía de los anfibios y reptiles. Área en conservación de la microcuenca Quebrada Pericos. [Valle de Cauca, Colombia]. Corporación Autónoma Regional del Valle del Cauca, Santiago de Cali: CVC, 37 pp. - get paper here
  • Dunn,E.R. 1944. Notes on Colombian herpetology, II. The lizard genus Echinosaura. Caldasia 2: 397-405 - get paper here
  • Fritts, Thomas H., Ana Almendáriz and Sissi Samec 2002. A new species of Echinosaura (Gymnophthalmidae) from Ecuador and Colombia with comments on other members of the genus and Teuchocercus keyi. Journal of Herpetology 36 (3): 349-355 - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2000. Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas, Bd 1: Krokodile, Schildkröten, Echsen. Herpeton Verlag, Offenbach, 158 pp.
  • Köhler, G.; Böhme, W. & Schmitz, A. 2004. A new species of Echinosaura (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from Ecuador. Journal of Herpetology 38 (1): 52-60 - get paper here
  • Leviton, A. E., & ANDERSON, S. C. 1966. Further comments on the behavior of the Panamanian microteiid Echinosaura horrida. Herpetologica 22 (2):160. - get paper here
  • Ortega-Andrade, H. Mauricio 2006. Reptilia, Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae, Echinosaura horrida: distribution extension and new geographic distribution map for Ecuador. Check List 2 (3): 2-4 - get paper here
  • Peterson, J. A. & Bezy, Robert L. 1985. The microstructure and evolution of scale surfaces in xantusiid lizards. Herpetologica 41 (3): 298-324. - get paper here
  • Pinto, M.A., Calderón, M.L., Medina, G.F. & Méndez, M.A. 2020. Herpetofauna from two municipalities of southwestern Colombia. Biota Colombiana 21(1): 41-57. DOI: 10.21068/c2020.v21n01a04 - get paper here
  • Ríos, E.E.; C.F. Hurtado P., J.T. Rengifo M., and F. Castro Herrera. 2011. LAGARTOS EN COMUNIDADES NATURALES DE DOS LOCALIDADES EN LA REGIÓN DEL CHOCÓ DE COLOMBIA. Herpetotropicos 5 (2): 85-92 - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Pazmiño-Otamendi G, Salazar-Valenzuela D. 2019. Reptiles of Ecuador: a resource-rich portal, with a dynamic checklist and photographic guides. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1): [General Section]: 209–229 (e178) - get paper here
  • Uzzell, T. M. 1965. Teiid lizards of the genus Echinosaura. Copeia 1965 (1): 82-89. - get paper here
  • Valencia-Zuleta A, Jaramillo-Martínez AF, Echeverry-Bocanegra A, Viáfara-Vega R, Hernández-Córdoba O, Cardona-Botero VE, Gutiérrez-Zúñiga J, Castro-Herrera F. 2014. Conservation status of the herpetofauna, protected areas, and current problems in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 8 (2): 1–18 (e87) - get paper here
  • Vargas-S., F. & Bolanos-L., M.E. 1999. Presencia de reptiles en la región de Anchicayá, pacifico colombiano, a través de un gradiente de deforestación. Caldasia 21 (2): 235-238 - get paper here
  • Vásquez-Restrepo, Juan D; Roberto Ibáñez, Santiago J Sánchez-Pacheco, Juan M Daza 2019. Phylogeny, taxonomy and distribution of the Neotropical lizard genus Echinosaura (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae), with the recognition of two new genera in Cercosaurinae. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 189 (1): 287–314 - get paper here
  • Werner,F. 1916. Bemerkungen über einige niedere Wirbeltiere der Anden von Kolumbien mit Beschreibungen neuer Arten. Zool. Anz. 47: 301-311 - get paper here
  • Yánez-Muñoz MH, Torres-Carvajal O, Reyes-Puig JP, Urgiles-Merchán MA, Koch C. 2021. A new and very spiny lizard (Gymnophthalmidae: Echinosaura) from the Andes in northwestern Ecuador. PeerJ 9:e12523 - get paper here
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