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Echis carinatus (SCHNEIDER, 1801)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Viperinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesEchis carinatus carinatus (SCHNEIDER 1801)
Echis carinatus sochureki STEMMLER 1969 
Common NamesE: Saw-scaled Viper, Phoorsa
E: Sindh Saw-scaled Viper [sochureki]
G: Sandrasselotter 
SynonymPseudoboa carinata SCHNEIDER 1801: 285
[Vipera (Echis)] carinata — MERREM 1820
Echis carinata — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1448
Echis carinatus — SMITH 1943: 487
Echis carinatus sinhaleyus DERANIYAGALA 1951: 148
Echis carinatus — HARDING & WELCH 1980
Echis multisquamatus CHERLIN 1981
Echis carinatus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 376
Echis carinatus sinhaleyus — DAVID & INEICH 1999
Echis carinatus multisquamatus — DAVID & INEICH 1999
Echis multisquamatus — RASTEGAR-POUYANI et al. 2008
Echis carinatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 255

Echis carinatus sochureki STEMMLER 1969
Echis carinatus SINDERSON 1924
Echis carinatus sochureki STEMMLER 1969
Echis carinatus astolae MERTENS 1970
Echis multisquamatus CHERLIN 1981 (fide POOK et al. 2009)
Echis sochureki — CHERLIN 1984
Echis carinatus sochureki — GASPERETTI 1988: 343
Echis sochureki sochureki — CHERLIN & BORKIN 1990
Echis (Turanechis) sochureki — CHERLIN 1990
Echis carinatus sochureki — WELCH 1994: 57
Echis sochureki — HERRMANN et al. 1999
Echis carinatus astolae — DAVID & INEICH 1999
Echis carinatus sochureki — DAVID & INEICH 1999
Echis sochureki — OKUDA et al. 2001
Echis carinatus sochureki — VAN DER KOOIJ 2001
Echis multisquamatus — ANANJEVA et al. 2004
Echis carinatus sochureki — DOBIEY & VOGEL 2007
Echis carinatus sochureki — AFRASIAB 2011
Echis carinatus astolae — KHAN 2017 
DistributionAfghanistan, Iran, India (Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Punjab, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Maharashtra (Salher, Marunji, probably all over) [A. Captain, pers. Comm.]), Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Oman, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan.

carinatus: peninsular India; no type locality available (fide LOVERIDGE 1936). Type locality (fide SCHMIDT 1939): “Arni” [= Aarni, Yavatmal, Maharashtra, India], (20.073345, 77.954673).

astolae: Astola Island off the coast of Pakistan; Type locality: “Insel Astola, Makranküste, West-Pakistan”

multisquamatus: Uzbekistan, NW Baluchistan in Pakistan northwest into Turkmenistan, SW Tajikistan, Afghanistan, E Iran

sinhaleyus: Sri Lanka

sochureki: N India (incl. Punjab [Dino Aulakh, pers. comm.]), Bangladesh, S Afghanistan, Pakistan, C Iran, S Iraq, United Arab Emirates, an isolated population in SE Arabian peninsula. Type locality: “West-Pakistan, Ban Kushdil Khan bei Pishin, Rand eines Stausees”.  
Reproductionovoviviparous (other species in the genus are oviparous, JOGER, pers. comm., 4 Dec 2012). 
TypesType: iconotype, based on pI. 2 ("Horatta Pam") in Russell, 1796, Acct. Indian Serp. 1: 2
Holotype: CAS 130648 [aliaborri]
Holotype: SMF 57356, female [astolae]
Holotype ZILlZISP 19059.1; 4, Paratype: ZFMK 37000, male [multisquamatus]
Holotype: NMSL 81/D [sinhaleyus]
Holotype: NMBA (also given as MBS) 17468, male; paratypes: SSW, MBS [sochureki] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (multisquamatus): E. c. multisquamatus is “separated from all other snakes of this genus by the large number of ventral (av. = 188.1), dorsal (av. = 37.1), and lateral scales (av. = 10.3). Moreover, it lacks enlarged scales over eyes. The light wavy stripes on the sides of the body are present and are not divided in separate arcs as in all other species of Echis. The white stripes on the back are transverse and narrow. There is a crosslike figure on the top of the head.” [from CHERLIN 1981]. 
CommentVenomous! This is one of four common venomous snakes of medical importance in India. The others are Naja naja, Bungarus caeruleus, and Daboia russeli.

Distribution: listed for Sierra Leone by AYLMER 1922. Pauwels & Meirte (1996) cite Chabanaud (1917) who mentions Echis carinatus from Gambia. JOHANN (1981) reports C. carinatus from Algeria. See map in Burriel-Carranza et al. 2019 for map in UAE. In Qatar fide Wikipedia.

Synonymy: partly after MCDIARMID et al. 1999 and JOGER (pers. comm., 4 Dec 2012). Echis carinatus aliaborri DREWES & SACHERER 1974 has been referred to E. varia by CHERLIN & BORKIN 1990. CHERLIN 1984 and 1990 treats E. sochureki as valid species and erects the subgenus Turanechis for it. E. multisquamatus is considered as valid species by some authors (KHALIKOV, pers. comm.). Based on protein sequence data Okuda et al. (2001) suggest to elevate E. c. sochureki to species status. Klemmer 1963 synonymized sinhaleyus with carinatus; Sindaco et al. 2013: 197 confirmed that by calling sinhaleyus“ a doubtful subspecies”.

Subspecies: see synonymy.

Mimicry: STERNFELD (1910) reports mimicry of Echis carinatus by Dasypeltis scabra.

Type species: Pseudoboa carinata SCHNEIDER 1801: 285 is the type species of the genus Echis MERREM 1820.

Phylogenetics: for a recent phylogeny of this and related Viperinae see Šmíd & Tolley 2019.

NCBI taxonID: 93050 [multisquamatus] 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “carinatus” = keeled (like a ship).

The genus was named after Greek echis = viper. 
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