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Enhydris longicauda (BOURRET, 1934)

IUCN Red List - Enhydris longicauda - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaHomalopsidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Long-tailed Mud Snake, Longhead Water Snake 
SynonymHypsirhina longicauda BOURRET 1934: 20
Enhydris longicauda — SMITH 1943: 386
Enhydris innominata longicauda — SAINT GIRONS 1971: 221
Enhydris innominata longicauda — PAUWELS et al. 2003
Enhydris longicauda — MURPHY & VORIS 2014: 17
Enhydris longicauda — WALLACH et al. 2014: 271 

Type locality: Tonlé Sap, Cambodia  
TypesSyntypes: MNHN-RA 1948.0095, MNHN-RA 1948.0096 and MNHN-RA 1938.0143 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Ventral scales 124–133, dorsolateral pattern mostly black-purple with large, lateral, dark scalloped blotches. In color pattern it is most similar to Enhydris jagorii and E. innominata. However, both jagorii and innominata demonstrate sexual dimorphism of the subcaudal scales and show less lateral compression of the tail. These two species also have different ventral scale count ranges, E. jagorii 117–127, and E. innominata 106–117, E. chanardi has fewer scale rows (20–22) around the neck compared to E. longicauda (23– 25), fewer ventral scales (110–122), and a distinctive pattern of lateral spots involving 2–4 scales on scale rows 4–6. Enhydris enhydris and E. subtaeniata have a dorsal pattern of longitudinal stripes, but E. subtaeniata’s pattern includes lateral spots on scale rows 4–6, and a ventral scale count range of 136–153, E. enhydris has more than 153 ventrals. Enhydris enhydris and E. subtaeniata have smooth, striated scales, while longicauda, chanardi, jagorii, and innominata do not (MURPHY & VORIS 2014). 
CommentSynonymy: Enhydris pahangensis TWEEDIE 1946 was previously considered as a synonym of E. longicauda. 
EtymologyNamed after the relatively long tail of the species (”Latin “long-”, “cauda” = tail). 
  • Bourret, R. 1934. Notes herpétologiques sur l'Indochine Française IV. Sur une collection d’ophidiens de Cochinchine et du Cambodge. V. Sure Liopeltis major et ses alliés. Bull. Instr. Pub. Gen. Hanoi Sept. 1934: 13-125 (in print 3-20)
  • KARNS, DARYL R.; VIMOKSALEHI LUKOSCHEK; JENNIFER OSTERHAGE; JOHN C. MURPHY & HAROLD K. VORIS 2010. Phylogeny and biogeography of the Enhydris clade (Serpentes: Homalopsidae). Zootaxa 2452: 18–30 [erratum in Zootaxa 2514: 68] - get paper here
  • Murphy, J.C. & Voris, H.K. 2014. A Checklist and Key to the Homalopsid Snakes (Reptilia, Squamata, Serpentes), with the Description of New Genera. FIELDIANA: LIFE AND EARTH SCIENCES (8): 1–43 - get paper here
  • Murphy, John C. 2007. Homalopsid Snakes: Evolution in the Mud. Krieger Publishing, Malabar, Florida, 249 pp.
  • Pauwels, O.S.G.; David, P.; Chimsunchart, C. & Thirakhupt, K. 2003. Reptiles of Phetchaburi Province, Western Thailand: a list of species, with natural history notes, and a discussion on the biogeography at the Isthmus of Kra. Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University 3 (1): 23-53 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Stuart, B.L.; Smith, J.; Davey, K.; Din, P. & Platt, S.G. 2000. Homalopsine watersnakes. The harvest and trade from Tonle Sap, Cambodia. Traffic Bull. 18 (3): 115-124
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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