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Enyalius leechii (BOULENGER, 1885)

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Higher TaxaLeiosauridae (Enyaliinae), Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Leeh's Fathead Anole
Portuguese: Camaleãozinho, Papa-Vento 
SynonymEnyalioides leechii BOULENGER 1885: 473
Garbesaura garbei AMARAL 1933: 64
Enyalius leechii ETHERIDGE 1969: 252
Enyalius leechii — PETERS et al. 1970: 118
Enyalius leechii— FROST et al. 2001
Enyalius leechii — PIANKA & VITT 2003: 67
Enyalius lechii — FREITAS et al. 2012
Enyalius leechi — VAZ-SILVA et al. 2015
DistributionBrazil (Para, Rondônia, N Mato Grosso)

Type locality: Santarem, Brazil.  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.8.9.7 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Enyalius with dorsal head scales relatively small, polygonal, keeled; dorsals relatively small, convex, keeled, juxtaposed, with a double row of vertebral scales which do not form a prominent crest; ventrals distinctly larger than dorsals, flat, keeled, slightly imbricate; subdigital lamellae distinctly keeled. Among Amazonian lizards it is easily recognizable by its colour pattern in shades of brown to beige, with a middorsal series of dark brown, approximately hexagonal to rhomboid figures, from which oblique lines extend laterally (Avila-Pires 1995: 122 ff).

Description. Polychrotid with maximum SVL in males of 93 mm (MNRJ 4434), in females of 107 m m (BM 1946.8.9.7, holotype). Head 0.23-0.25 (0.24 ± 0.01, n= 7) times SVL; 1.2-1.3 (1.24 ± 0.04, n= 7) times as long as wide; and 1.2-1.3 (1.23 ± 0.04, n= 7) times as wide as high. Snout short, round, rising steadily toward top of head; canthus rostralis angulate. Neck distinctly narrower than head and body. Body roughly round-triangular in cross section, slightly compressed. Limbs well developed, forelimbs about half (0.48 ± 0.01, n= 6), hind limbs about as long as SVL (0.99 ± 0.08, n= 6), tibia 0.30-0.34 (0.31 ± 0.01, n= 7) times SVL. Tail slightly compressed near base, round in cross section distally; 1.7-1.9 (1.80 ± 0.09, n= 7) times SVL.
Tongue villose, with roundedtip.Anterior teeth conical, posterior teeth tricuspid.
Rostralusuallyband-like,4-5times aswideashigh,justvisiblefromabove;in MNRJ 4434 rostral partially divided medially, in MPEG 14365 divided into three scales of about same width, median one higher than laterals (which could be considered as first supralabials) and slightly higher than wide. Postrostrals 4-5, mostly wider than long, with a transverse keel. Scales on snout relatively small, mostly longer than wide, with their surface raised toward a longitudinal keel; 10-14 scales across snout between first canthals; toward canthus rostralis they form rows approximately parallel to it. Canthus rostralis with a double row of canthals, 3-4, occasionally five, in a row between supraciliaries and level of nostril, about 6-7 between supraciliaries and postrostrals. Supraorbital semicircles with up to 18-22 scales, or partially inconspicuous; separated medially by 3-4 rows of scales. Supraoculars centrally about as large as scales on snout, hexagonal, medially keeled, surrounded by smaller scales; adjacent to supraciliaries two parallel rows of scales with keels close to their lateral borders. Supraciliaries 10-12, occasionally 13 or 14, anterior ones long and overlapping posteriorly, posterior ones short and juxtaposed or slightly overlapping anteriorly; they form a supraciliary ridge continuous with canthus rostralis. Interparietal a few times larger than parietals, with a distinct parietal eye. Parietals similar to scales on snout, laterally and posteriorly surrounded by distinctly smaller scales. Loreal region with scales relatively small, keeled, mostly hexagonal; a few rows of narrower scales parallel to supralabials, with a keel nearer its ventral border. Nasal small, below canthus rostralis, much closer to rostral than to eye; nostril oriented laterally, occupying most area of nasal. A continuous row of 8-14, mostly 10-11, keeled preoculars and suboculars, separated from supralabials by two or three rows of scales. Supralabials 11-13, elongate, convex to keeled, 10-11 to below centre of eye. Temporal scales hexagonal, keeled, slightly larger along supratemporal arc, compressed near ear-opening. Ear-opening large, with a short auditory meatus.
Mental wide, bordered posteriorly by two to four relatively large, convex, smooth scales. Infralabials 10-14, elongate, convex to keeled, one or two before the last below centre of eye. Scales on chin keeled, medially relatively short and irregular in shape, toward infralabials elongate, hexagonal. Gulars low-trihedral, keeled, medial ones distinctly larger anterior to gular fold. Gular fold continuous at each side with an antehumeral fold, none of them very pronounced.
Scales on nape and sides of neck similar to dorsals but slightly smaller. Dorsals juxtaposed, irregularly polygonal, convex and obtusely keeled, decreasing in size toward flanks. A double vertebral row of keeled scales, scarcely larger than adjacent dorsals, extends from nape to posterior part of body or base of tail; 126-165 (148.9 ± 15.8, n= 7) scales along a single vertebral row, from nape to posterior margin of hind limbs. Ventrals distinctly larger than dorsals, irregularly polygonal to roughly quadrangular, flat with a distinct median keel, slightly imbricate, in poorly defined transverse rows; 45-54 (50.1 ± 2.9, n= 7) scales in a midventral line, from level of shoulders to anterior margin of hind limbs. Ventrolaterally scales on flanks and ventrals merge into each other. Scales around midbody 136-158 (144.6 ± 8.7, n= 7). Scales of preanal plate similar to ventrals. Preanal and femoral pores absent.
Scales on tail polygonal, flat, slightly imbricate, with a distinct median keel; ventrally scales larger, with a stronger keel. Distally the scales form longitudinal rows, keels forming continuous longitudinal ridges.
Forelimbs mostly with rhomboid to hexagonal, flat, keeled, slightly imbricate scales, larger on forearms; granular scales on posterior aspect of upper arms. Hind limbs mostly with rhomboid to hexagonal, flat, keeled, slightly imbricate scales, with stronger keels on anterior aspect of thighs and on lower legs; granular scales on posterior aspect of thighs; distinctly smaller scales in an antero-dorsal band along lower legs. Subdigital lamellae distinctly keeled, keels very prominent under toes; 17-21 (19.2 ± 1.4, n= 14, 7 specimens) lamellae under fourth finger, 22-27 (25.9 ± 1.6, n= 14, 7 specimens) under fourth toe (Avila-Pires 1995: 122 ff).

Coloration: Colour of MPEG 13999 described after seventeen days in alcohol (the specimen had been observed before fixation, and the colours seemed to be quite the same on both occasions). Nascimento, Avila-Pires & Cunha (1987: 44) presented a description of this same specimen. Head dorsally dark cinnamon-brown (33), with a few dark, narrow, transverse lines, largest of which across supraocular regions, "continuing" at each side from suboculars to supralabials; another dark line from posteriorly of orbit, through inferior margin of ear-opening, to base of forelimbs. Head ventrally with a light rose-pink (108D) tinge. Body dorsally fawn colour (25), with a middorsal series of large, dark coffee-brown, roughly hexagonal to rhomboid figures, with beige (219D) margins. On neck, anterior margin of first spot whitish, dorsolaterally forming a white oval spot at each side. From the middorsal figures, smudged dark greyish-brown (20) areas spread laterally, anteriorly delimited by well-defined dark-brown and beige lines, which continue ventrolaterally. Ventral region pale beige (219D), with a dark midventral line. Limbs dorsally fawn colour, lighter posteriorly, with dark coffee-brown spots; underside beige with dark transverse lines. Tail pale fawn colour with rhomboid dark coffee-brown figures dorsally, and lighter, suffuse spots ventrally.
All specimens present a pattern very similar to that described, except that in females colours are slightly less contrasting (Avila-Pires 1995: 122 ff). 
CommentDistribution: See map in Breitman et al. 2019: 357 (Fig. 1). Probably also in Bolivia (fide LANGSTROTH 2005) 
EtymologyNamed after John Henry Leech (1862-1900), a British explorer, collector, and entomologist, interested particularly in Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. 
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  • Avila-Pires, T.C.S. 1995. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata). Zoologische Verhandelingen 299: 1-706 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Breitman, M. Florencia; Fabricius M.C.B. Domingos, Justin C. Bagley, Helga C. Wiederhecker, Tayná B. Ferrari, Vitor H.G.L. Cavalcante, André C. Pereira, Tarcísio L.S. Abreu, Anderson Kennedy Soares De-Lima, Carlos J.S. Morais, Ana C.H. del Prette, Iz 2018. A New Species of Enyalius (Squamata, Leiosauridae) Endemic to the Brazilian Cerrado. Herpetologica 74 (4): 355-369. - get paper here
  • Etheridge, R. 1969. A review of the Iguanid lizard genus Enyalius. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology 18 (8): 233-260 - get paper here
  • Freitas, Marco Antonio de; Diogo Veríssimo, Saymon de Albuquerque and Tiago de Oliveira Lima 2012. Distribution extension for the lizard Enyalius lechii (Boulenger, 1885) (Squamata: Leiosauridae): Third record for the state of Rondônia, Brazil. Herpetology Notes 5: 33-34
  • Frost, Darrel R.; Richard Etheridge; Daniel Janies and Tom A. Titus 2001. Total evidence, sequence alignment, evolution of polychrotid lizards, and a reclassification of the Iguania (Squamata, Iguania). American Museum Novitates 3343: 1-22 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214
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  • Peters, James A. & Donoso-Barros, Roberto 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part II. Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 293 pp. - get paper here
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  • RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR, MARCO A. 2015. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. I. Dactyloidae, Hoplocercidae, Iguanidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae, Tropiduridae. Zootaxa 3983 (1): 001–110 - get paper here
  • Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A. & Silvana Amaral 2016. Diversity, distribution, and conservation of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) in the Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Biodiversity, 2:1, 195-421 - get paper here
  • Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Carolina Elena Viña Bertolotto, Renata Cecília Amaro, Yatiyo Yonenaga-Yassuda, Eliza Maria Xavier Freire, Katia Cristina Machado Pellegrino 2014. Molecular phylogeny, species limits, and biogeography of the Brazilian endemic lizard genus Enyalius (Squamata: Leiosauridae): An example of the historical relationship between Atlantic Forests and Amazonia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 81: 137-146, DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2014.07.019 - get paper here
  • Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Marco Antonio de Freitas, Thais Figueiredo Santos Silva, and Carolina Elena Viña Bertolotto 2006. A new species of lizard genus Enyalius (Squamata, Leiosauridae) from the highlands of Chapada Diamantina, State of Bahia, Brazil, with a key to species. Phyllomedusa 5 (1): 11-24 - get paper here
  • Vanzolini, P. E. 1973. Garbesaura garbei Amaral, 1933, a synonym of Enyalius leechii (Boulinger, 1885)(Sauria, Iguanidae). Papéis Avulsos Zoologia (Sáo Paulo) 27 (13): 173-175
  • Vaz-Silva, W.; RM Oliveira, AFN Gonzaga, KC Pinto, FC Poli, TM Bilce, M Penhacek, L Wronski, JX Martins, TG Junqueira, LCC, Cesca VY, Guimarães RD. Pinheiro 2015. Contributions to the knowledge of amphibians and reptiles from Volta Grande do Xingu, northern Brazil Braz. J. Biol., 75 (3) (suppl.): S205-S218 - get paper here
  • Vitt, Laurie J.; Avila-Pires, Teresa C.S.; Zani, Peter A. 1996. Observations on the Ecology of the rare Amazonian lizard, Enyalius leechii (Polychrotidae). Herpetological Natural History 4 (1): 77-82 - get paper here
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