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Epicrates maurus GRAY, 1849

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Higher TaxaBoidae (Boinae), Henophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Brown Rainbow Boa
G: Braune Regenbogenboa
S: Boa tornasol, Boa tornasol mamona, mapaná, morada, pintada 
SynonymEpicrates maurus GRAY 1849: 96
Cliftia fusca GRAY 1849: 99
Epicarsius cupreus FISCHER 1856
Epicrates cupreus — JAN 1864
Epicrates cupreus var. concolor JAN 1863
Epicrates cenchria var. fusca — GRIFFIN 1916:168
Epicrates cenchria maurus — STULL 1935: 238
Epicrates cenchria barbouri STULL 1938: 300
Epicrates cenchria maurus — STULL 1935
Epicrates cenchria maurus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Epicrates cenchria maurus — FREIBERG 1982
Epicrates maurus — CHIPPAUX 1987: 37
Epicrates maurus — STARACE 1998: 105
Epicrates maurus — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Epicrates cenchria maurus — BOOS 2001: 64
Epicrates cenchria — SOLORZANO 2004
Epicrates maurus colombianus MATZ 2005
Epicrates maurus guyanensis MATZ 2005
Epicrates maurus — MATZ 2005
Epicrates maurus — PASSOS & FERNANDES 2008
Epicrates maurus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 273
Epicrates maurus — REYNOLDS & HENDERSON 2018: 21
Epicrates maurus — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionNicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela (Merida, Cojedes), Guyana, Suriname, French Guyana, N Brazil (Pará: HR 33: 67), Trinidad, Tobago, Isla Margarita, French Guiana.

Type locality: “Venezuela”

colombianus: Colombia, NW Venezuela, W Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua. Type locality: Comomia, without exact locality.

guyanensis: French Guiana, Suriname. Type locality: Mana, Guyane francaise.  
Reproductionviviparous; there is evidence for parthenogenesis in this species (BOOTH et al. 2011). 
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.10.40, adult male
Holotype: lost (presumed) [fusca]
Holotype: MCZ 22442 [barbouri]
Holotype: MNHN-RA 2000.4319 [colombianus]
Holotype: MNHN-RA 2000.4291 [guayanensis] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis.—Distinguished from all continental species of Epicrates by having: (1) lateral stripe of the body with four scales width, (2) irregular lateral ocelli in juvenile and indistinct in adults specimens, (3) dorsal ground color yellow to light brown in juveniles and uniform brown in adults, with noticeable ontogenetic change of coloration. Additionally, E. maurus differ from E. cenchria, E. assisi, and E. alvarezi by having hemipenis length (in situ). 13 subcaudal scales long; from E. cenchria and E. alvarezi, by having barely conspicuous parietal crest and reduced alary process of vomer; from E. cenchria, by having ventral scales, 245; from E. crassus, by having subcaudal scales generally . 50. Refer to Tables 6–7 for additional diagnostic features of the continental Epicrates.
 
CommentSynonymy mostly after PASSOS & FERNANDES 2008.

Habitat: in open areas (savannahs) in Suriname. Semi-arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
References
  • Auguste, Renoir J. 2019. Herpetofaunal checklist for six pilot protected areas in Trinidad and Tobago. Herpetology Notes 12: 577-585 - get paper here
  • Aya-Cuero, Carlos A.; Carlos H. Cáceres-Martínez, Diego A. Esquivel 2019. First record of predation on greater sac-winged bat, Saccopteryx bilineata (Chiroptera: Emballonuridae), by the Colombian rainbow boa, Epicrates maurus (Serpentes: Boidae). Herpetology Notes 12: 815-817 - get paper here
  • Bellosa, H. & Bisplinghof, H. 2012. Regenbogenboas - Das Kompendium. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 224 pp.
  • Blanco-Torres, Argelina; Lina Báez S., Edgar Patiño-Flores, Juan M. Renjifo-R. 2013. Herpetofauna from the middle valley of the Ranchería river, La Guajira, Colombia. Rev. Biodivers. Neotrop. 3 (2): 113-22
  • Boos, H.E.A. 2001. The snakes of Trinidad and Tobago. Texas A&M University Press, 270 pp.
  • Booth,W.,Million,L.,Reynolds,R.G.,Burghardt,G.M., Vargo, E. L., Schal, C. & Schuett, G. W. 2011. Consecutive virgin births in the New World boid snake, the Colombian rainbow boa, Epicrates maurus. J. Hered. 102, 759–63. (doi:10.1093/jhered/esr080) - get paper here
  • Cole, Charles J.; Carol R. Townsend, Robert P. Reynolds, Ross D. MacCulloch, and Amy Lathrop 2013. Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 125 (4): 317-578; plates: 580-620 - get paper here
  • Esquerré, D & J S Keogh. 2016. Parallel selective pressures drive convergent diversification of phenotypes in pythons and boas. Ecology Letters, 19(7): 800-809 - get paper here
  • Freiberg, M.A. 1982. Snakes of South America. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, NJ, 189 pp.
  • Gray, J. E. 1849. Catalogue of the specimens of snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Edward Newman, London, i-xv; 1-125. - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Hedges SB, Powell R, Henderson RW, Hanson S, and Murphy JC 2019. Definition of the Caribbean Islands biogeographic region, with checklist and recommendations for standardized common names of amphibians and reptiles. Caribbean Herpetology 67: 1–53
  • Matz, G. 2004. Epicrates maurus Gray, 1849. Description des sous-espèces. Situla (10): 2-9
  • Mertens, R. 1972. Herpetofauna tobagana. Stuttgarter Beitr. zur Naturkunde nr. 252 22 pp. - get paper here
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela. Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo,<br />Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins,<br />Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz0, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisnero 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Passos, Paulo and Ronaldo Fernandes 2008. Revision of the Epicrates cenchria Complex (Serpentes: Boidae). Herpetological Monographs 22 (1): 1-30 - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Peters, James A.; Donoso-Barros, Roberto & Orejas-Miranda, Braulio 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part I Snakes. Part II Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 347 pp. - get paper here
  • Reynolds, R. Graham and Robert W. Henderson 2018. Boas of the World (Superfamily Booidae): A Checklist With Systematic, Taxonomic, and Conservation Assessments. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology Sep 2018, Vol. 162, No. 1: 1-58. - get paper here
  • Rivas Fuenmayor, G.; Ugueto, G.; Rivero, R. & Miralles, A. 2005. The Herpetofauna of Isla de Margarita, Venezuela: New Records and Comments. Carib. J. Sci. 41 (2): 346-351
  • Rivas Fuenmayor, Gilson and Cesar Luis Barrio Amorós 2005. New Amphibian and Reptile records from Cojedes State, Venezuela. Herpetological Review 36 (2):205-209. - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Rivera, P.C., Cola, V.D., Martı ́nez, J.J., Gardenal, C.N. and Chiaraviglio, M. 2011. Species Delimitation in the Continental Forms of the Genus Epicrates (Serpentes, Boidae) Integrating Phylogenetics and Environmental Niche Models. PLoS One 6 (9): e22199. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022199 - get paper here
  • Roze, J. A. 1952. Colección de reptiles del Profesor Scorza, de Venezuela. Acta Biologica Venezuelica 1 (5): 93-114
  • Schramer, T D; Kalki, Y & Wylie, D B 2018. Epicrates maurus (Brown Rainbow Boa) Dicephalism. Herpetological Review 49 (3): 547 - get paper here
  • Schwederski, M. & L. Trutnau 2013. Zur Biologie und Pflege der Guyana-Regenbogenboa (Epicrates maurus guyanensis). Reptilia (Münster) 18 (100): 91-96 - get paper here
  • Señaris, J. Celsa; María Matilde Aristeguieta Padrón, Haidy Rojas Gil y Fernando J. M. Rojas-Runjaic 2018. Guía ilustrada de los anfibios y reptiles del valle de Caracas, Venezuela. Ediciones IVIC, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC). Caracas, Venezuela. 348 pp.
  • Starace, Fausto 1998. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. IBIS Rouge Editions, Guadeloupe, Guyane, 450 pp.
  • Starace, Fausto 2013. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. Ibis Rouge Editions, Matoury, Guyane, ISBN 978-2-84450-407-4 - get paper here
  • Stull, O.G. 1935. A Checklist of the Family Boidae. Proc. Boston Soc. nat. Hist., 40: 387—408.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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