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Epictia signata (JAN, 1861)

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Higher TaxaLeptotyphlopidae, Epictinae, Epictini, Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: South American Blind Snake 
SynonymStenostoma signatum JAN 1861: 188
Glauconia signata — BOULENGER 1893: 64
Leptotyphlops signatus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 43
Epictia signata — WALLACH et al. 2014: 278 
DistributionVenezuela (Bolivar to Amazonas),
Colombia [Castro,F. pers. comm.]

Type locality: none given (fide KORNACKER 1999).  
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 3235 (fide JAN 1861) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Epictia signata is distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characters: snout truncate in dorsal and ventral views, rounded in lateral view; supraocular present, not in contact with first supralabial; rostral scale triangular in dorsal view; ocular subhexagonal with straight shape at the eye level; supraocular longer than frontal scale; temporal indistinct; fused caudals absent; eyes concentrated in the middle area of the expanded upper part of ocular; two supralabials (1+1); four infralabials; 208–282 middorsal scales; 261–214 midventral scales; 14–17 subcaudal scales; 10 scales around the middle of tail; seven dorsal scale rows uniformly brown, and seven lateroventral series light brown; rostral, last subcaudals, and terminal spine white coloured (from PINTO-RICHARD et a. 2010). 
CommentSynonymy: Epictia amazonica has been resurrected from the synonymy of E. signata by NATERA-MUMAW et al. 2015.

Distribution: Reports from Ecuador (e.g. Pinto et al. 2010) are most likely based on misidentifications (CISNEROS-HEREDIA 2008, Natera-Mumaw et al. 2015). 
  • Adalsteinsson, S.A.; Branch, W.R.; Trapé, S.; Vitt, L.J. & Hedges, S.B. 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of snakes of the Family Leptotyphlopidae (Reptilia, Squamata). Zootaxa 2244: 1-50 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Cisneros-Heredia D.F. 2008. Reptilia, Squamata, Leptotyphlopidae, Leptotyphlops, Ecuador: Re-evaluation of the species cited for the country. Check List 4 (2): 178–181 - get paper here
  • FRANCISCO, BÁRBARA CRISTINA S.; ROBERTA R. PINTO & DANIEL S. FERNANDES 2012. Taxonomy of Epictia munoai (Orejas-Miranda, 1961) (Squamata: Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae). Zootaxa 3512: 42–52 - get paper here
  • Hahn, D.E. 1979. The identity of the blind snake Stenostoma signatum JAN 1861 (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae). Herpetologica 35 (1): 57-60 - get paper here
  • Hedges, S.B., Marion, A.B., Lipp, K.M., Marin, J. & Vidal, N. 2014. A taxonomic framework for typhlopid snakes from the Caribbean and other regions (Reptilia, Squamata). Caribbean Herpetology 49: 1–61 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1861. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 2. Livraison. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1862. Note sulla famiglia dei Tiflopidi, sui loro generi e sulle specie del genere Stenostoma. Arch. Zool. Anat. Fisiol. Genova 1 [1861]: 178-199 - get paper here
  • Lancini,A.R. & Kornacker,P.M. 1989. Die Schlangen von Venezuela. Armitano Editores C.A., Caracas, 1-381
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela. Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • Orejas-Miranda 1969. Tres nuevos Leptotyphlops (Reptilia: Serpentes). Comun. Zool. Mus. hist. nat. Montevideo, 10 (124): 11 pp.
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • PINTO, ROBERTA R.; PAULO PASSOS, JOSÉ RANCES CAICEDO-PORTILLA, JUAN CAMILO ARREDONDO & RONALDO FERNANDES 2010. Taxonomy of the Threadsnakes of the tribe Epictini (Squamata: Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae) in Colombia. Zootaxa 2724: 1–28 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Salazar-Valenzuela D, Martins A, Amador-Oyola L, Torres-Carvajal O. 2015. A new species and country record of threadsnakes (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae: Epictinae) from northern Ecuador. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 8 (1) [Special Section]: 107–120 - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Pazmiño-Otamendi G, Salazar-Valenzuela D. 2019. Reptiles of Ecuador: a resource-rich portal, with a dynamic checklist and photographic guides. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1): [General Section]: 209–229 (e178) - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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