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Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus (WIED-NEUWIED, 1824)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesErythrolamprus poecilogyrus caesius (COPE 1862)
Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus poecilogyrus (WIED-NEUWIED 1825)
Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus schotti (SCHLEGEL 1837)
Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus sublineatus (COPE 1860) 
Common NamesG: Goldbauch-Buntnatter
Portuguese: Boipeva, Casco-de-Burro, Cobra-Corredeira, Cobra-D’água, Cobra-de-Caçote, Cobra-de-Caçote-Amarela, Cobra-de-Capim, Cobra-de-Jardim, Cobra-de-Lixo, Cobra-do-Capim, Cobra-do-Lixo, Cobra-Lisa, Cobra-Verde, Cobra-Verde-Argentina, Cobra-Verde-do-Capim, Coral-Falsa, Falsa-Coral, Jararaquinha, Parelheira, Peça-Nova, Rainha 
SynonymColuber poecilogyrus WIED-NEUWIED 1824: 371
Coluber picatus — SHAW & NODDER 1798: plate 340
Coluber m-nigrum RADDI 1820: 338
C[oluber] alternans LICHTENSTEIN 1823
Natrix G. forsteri WAGLER 1824: 16 (fide DIXON 1987)
Natrix G. forsteri — SPIX 1824: 16
Liophis subfasciatus COPE 1862: 77
Liophis ornatissima JAN 1863
Liophis typhlus gastrosticta JAN 1863
Liophis typhlus olivacea JAN 1863
Opheomorphus meleagris COPE (fide BOULENGER 1886)
Liophis cobella flaviventris JAN 1866
Liophis reginae viridicyanea JAN & SORDELLI 1866
Liophis poecilogyrus — JAN 1866
Liophis typhlus var. subfasciata — BOETTGER 1885
Liophis poecilogyrus — BOULENGER 1886: 432
Rhadinaea dichroa WERNER 1909
Rhadinaea praeornata WERNER 1909: 58
Leimadophis poecilogyrus reticulatus PARKER 1931
Leimadophis poecilogyrus xerophilus AMARAL 1944
Leimadophis poecilogyrus pictostriatus AMARAL 1944
Leimadophis poecilogyrus amazonicus AMARAL 1944
Leimadophis poecilogyrus franciscanus AMARAL 1944
Leimadophis poecilogyrus intermedius AMARAL 1944
Leimadophis poecilogyrus montanus AMARAL 1944
Leimadophis poecilogyrus pinetincola AMARAL 1944
Leimadophis poecilogyrus platensis AMARAL 1944
Liophis poecilogyrus xerophilus — SCHMIDT & INGER 1951
Leimadophis typhlus forsteri — HOGE 1964: 59
Leimadophis poecilogyrus reticulatus — DAAN & HILLENIUS 1966: 138
Leimadophis poecilogyrus reticulatus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Leimadophis poecilogyrus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 145
Liophis poecilogyrus poecilogyrus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Leimadophis poecilogyrus amazonicus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Leimadophis poecilogyrus franciscanus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Leimadophis poecilogyrus intermedius — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Leimadophis poecilogyrus montanus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Leimadophis poecilogyrus pictostriatus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Leimadophis poecilogyrus pinetincola — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Leimadophis poecilogyrus platensis — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Leimadophis poecilogyrus schotti — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Leimadophis poecilogyrus subfasciatus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Leimadophis poecilogyrus xerophilus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Leimadophis poecilogyrus — SCOTT & LOVETT 1975
Dromicus poecilogyrus xerophilus — HOGE et al. 1978: 42
Leimadophis poecilogyrus xerophilus — HOGE et al. 1978: 88
Leimadophis typhlus forsteri — FUGLER & WALLS 1978
Dromicus poecilogyrus lancinii — HOGE et al. 1978 (nom. subst. pro amazonicus)
Dromicus poecilogyrus — FREIBERG 1982
Liophis poecilogyras [sic] — VITT & VANGILDER 1984
Leimadophis poecilogyrus reticulatus — MEHRTENS 1987: 193
Liophis poecilogyrus poecilogyrus — DIXON & MARKEZICH 1992
Liophis poecilogyrus — LEYNAUD & BUCHER 1999: 23
Liophis poecilogyrus reticulatus — BRUCHMANN 2004
Liophis poecilogyrus — SCROCCHI et al. 2006: 99
Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus — FORLANI et al. 2010
Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012
Liophis poecilogyrus — BERNARDE et al. 2012
Liophis poecilogyrus — COLE et al. 2013
Liophis poecilogyrus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 384

Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus caesius (COPE 1860)
Opheomorphus doliatus var. caesius COPE 1862
Liophis poecilogyrus caesius — DIXON & MARKEZICH 1992
Liophis poecilogyrus caesius — LEYNAUD & BUCHER 1999: 23
Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus caesius — NUÑEZ-MONTELLANO 2020
Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus caesius — ENTIAUSPE-NETO et al. 2021

Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus sublineatus (COPE 1860)
Liophis Merremii var. sublineatus COPE 1860: 252
Leimadophis poecilogyrus platensis AMARAL 1944
Liophis poecilogyrus sublineatus — DIXON & MARKEZICH 1992
Liophis poecilogyrus sublineatus — LEYNAUD & BUCHER 1999: 23
Liophis poecilogyrus sublineatus — KACOLIRIS et al. 2006
Liophis poecilogyrus sublineatus — CARREIRA et al. 2012
Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus sublineatus — ENTIAUSPE-NETO et al. 2016
Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus sublineatus — ENTIAUSPE-NETO et al. 2021

Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus schotti (SCHLEGEL 1837)
Xenodon schotti SCHLEGEL 1837: 91
Dryophylax schotti — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1118
Pseudophis Schotti — COPE 1862: 348
Liophis poecilostictus — JAN 1863: 189 (fide BOULENGER 1886)
Philodryas schotti — BOULENGER 1886: 434
Philodryas schotti (SCHLEGEL 1837! not GÜNTHER 1858!) BOULENGER 1896
Philodryas schotti — KOSLOWSKY 1896
Leimadophis poecilogyrus albadspersus AMARAL 1944
Leimadophis poecilogyrus schotti — HOGE 1964
Leimadophis poecilogyrus albadspersus — JAUCH 1979
Liophis poecilogyrus schotti — DIXON & MARKEZICH 1992
Liophis poecilogyrus schotti — CEI 1993
Liophis poecilogyrus schotti — LEYNAUD & BUCHER 1999: 23
Liophis poecilogyrus schotti — RIVAS-FUENMAYOR et al. 2002
Liophis poecilogyrus schotti — COSTA et al. 2010
Liophis poecilogyrus schotti — CALDEIRA-COSTA et al. 2014
Liophis poecilogyrus schotti — FREITAS 2014
Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus schotti — FREITAS 2014
Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus schotti — MARQUES et al. 2016
Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus schotti — ENTIAUSPE-NETO et al. 2021 
DistributionArgentina (Formosa, Corrientes), Uruguay, Brazil (Amazonas, Rio Grande do Sul, Maranhão, Amapá, Roraima, S Ceará, Rio de Janeiro, Paraíba), Bolivia, Peru, Venezuela (Bolivar [HR 30: 54]), Guyana, Paraguay

caesius: Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay; Type locality: Santa Fe, Argentina.

poecilogyrus: Bolivia, Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil (Amazonas, Para, Minas Gerais, Bahia, Goiás, SW Pernambuco, São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul to coastal Santa Catarina, Mato Grosso, Piauí); Type locality: Barra de Jucú, Rio Espirito Santo, Brazil.

schotti: Venezuela (Amazonas: HR 33: 68, Anzoategui), Brazil (Sã Paulo, Bahia); Terra typica; South America; restricted to Estado do São Paulo, Brazil by HOGE 1964.

sublineatus: Uruguay, Argentina; Type locality: Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The following subspecies are no longer recognized:

amazonicus: Brazil (Amazonas, Pará); Type locality: probably Pará, Brazil (not clearly stated as such).

franciscanus: Brazil (N Minas gerais, C/W Bahia, Goiás, SW Pernambuco); Type locality: Pirapora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

montanus: Brazil (São Paulo); Type locality: Piquete, São Paulo.

pictostriatus: C/S Rio Grande do Sul to coastal Santa Catarina, Brazil; Type locality: São Lourenco, Brazil.

pinetincola: Paraná to Santa Catarina and São Paulo, Brazil; Type locality: C Paraná, Brazil.

reticulatus: Bolivia, N Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil (Mato Grosso); Type locality: Makthlawaiya, Paraguayan Chaco.

subfasciatus: Paraguay, Argentina (Entre Ríos); Type locality: Paraguay.

xerophilus: NE Brazil (Pernambuco to Piauí); Type locality: not clearly stated.  
Reproductionoviparous. Clutch size from 6 to 15 eggs. 
TypesSyntypes: AMNH 3593-94, ZMH R04429, R04430
Holotype: ZSM1768/0, female [forsteri]
Syntypes: ANSP 5419-20 [sublineatus]
Holotype: USNM 5393 [caesius]
Holotype: USNM 5809 [Liophis subfasciatus]
Lectotype: RMNH RA 236, collected by Natterer [schotti] 
Diagnosis“Erythrolamprus p. poecilogyrus [...] has continuous or alternating bands across its dorsum, extending to the lateral tips of the ventrals, with light pink or yellow scales edged with black (Dixon & Markezich 1992). In light of this, E. p. poecilogyrus can be readily differentiated from E. aenigma, based on its distinctive dorsal (red crossbands) and ventral (black, squareshaped blotches) patterns (Figs 6A–B, 8G).” (Entiauspe-Neto et al. 2021).

“Erythrolamprus p. caesius was described based on one specimen from Santa Fé in western Argentina. It has one available name associated with it, i.e., Liophis poecilogyrus reticulatus Parker, 1931 from the Chaco of Paraguay. Both aforementioned forms agree well with each other morphologally. E. poecilogyrus caesius is distributed in open areas of Argentina, Paraguay, and Bolivia. We examined the holotype of E. poecilogyrus caesius (USNM 5395), which is similar to our new species in having reticulated scales on its dorsum, but differs from it by lacking arrow-shaped black and white nuchal collars, and by having two lateral white, discolored, stripes. Compared to the new species, this subspecific form also bears a distinct ventral coloration (small square-shaped blotches, restricted to the edges of its ventrals, or uniformly cream), supralabial coloration (scales uniformly yellow or cream, without black edges) and a distinct dorsal pattern (reticulated black and yellow scales and two lateral yellow stripes) (Figs 6C–D, 8F).” (Entiauspe-Neto et al. 2021).

“Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus schotti has the following available names associated with it: (i) Liophis subfascia­ tus Cope, 1862, described from Paraguay; (ii) L. ornatissi­ ma Jan, 1863, described from Paraná state, southern Brazil; (iii) L. typhlus gastrosticta Jan, 1863, from Pernambuco state, in the Caatinga of northeastern Brazil; (iv) L. typhlus olivacea Jan, 1863, from Pernambuco, also in the Caatinga of northeastern Brazil; (v) L. reginae viridicyanea Jan & Sordelli, 1866, from Paraná state, southern Brazil; (vi) Rhadinaea praeornata Werner, 1909, from “central Brazil”; (vii) Leimadophis poecilogyrus albadspersus Amaral, 1944, from Piracicaba, in the Cerrado of São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil; (viii) L. p. amazonicus Amaral, 1944, from Santarém, in the Amazon Rainforest of Pará state, northern Brazil; (ix) L. p. franciscanus Amaral, 1944, from Pirapora, in the Cerrado of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil; (x) L. p. intermedius Amaral, 1944, from the Cerrado of Goiás state, central Brazil; (xi) L. p. pineticola Amaral, 1944, from “central Paraná”, Paraná state, southern Brazil; (xii) L. p. xerophilus Amaral, 1944, from the Caatinga of Ceará, northeastern Brazil; (xiii) L. p. monta­ nus Amaral, 1944, described from Piquete, in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil; (xiv) Dromicus poecilogyrus lancinii Hoge, Romano, & Cordeiro, 1978, from the Amazon Rainforest of Santarém, Amazon rainforest of Pará state, northern Brazil. Erythro­ lamprus poecilogyrus schotti was diagnosed by Dixon & Markezich (1992) as having frontal and parietal scales without well-defined edges, and stripes or interruption of pattern close to its tail or caudal scale. The aforementioned synonyms agree well with the proposed diagnosis of Dixon & Markezich (1992); this is furthermore corroborated by our examination of specimens from northern, northeastern, southeastern, and southern Brazil (Appendix I). This form ranges into open and forested areas of Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina. However, the morphological variation of E. aenigma does not fall within the proposed diagnosis of E. p. schotti (Figs 6E–F, 8H). The new species presents well-defined black edges of its head scales, lacks the posterior body stripe, and also has a uniformly reticulated pattern throughout its dorsal body and tail. We also examined the syntype of E. p. schotti, RMNH 236. The specimen, although discolored from storage in preservative, presents a unvarying grey dorsal pattern, variegated with black, and a white venter with alternating black squares. However, as noted by Dixon & Markezich (1992), populations from northeastern Brazil may have a uniformly white venter. In light of this, it can be readily distinguished from E. aenig­ ma based on its dorsal (variegated or with crossbands, and a posterior stripe), head pattern (without well-defined dark edges on scales), absent posterior body stripe (present), and ventral pattern (with alternating black squares or uniformly white). Furthermore, it should also be noted that these species are allopatrically distributed.” (Entiauspe-Neto et al. 2021).

“Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus sublineatus has the following available names associated with it: (i) Leimadophis poecilogyrus pictostriatus Amaral, 1944, described from the Pampas of São Lourenço (São Lourenço do Sul), Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil; (ii) Leimadophis poe­ cilogyrus platensis Amaral, 1944, described from the Pampas of La Plata, Argentina. Aside from small differences in their colour patterns, these forms agree well with each other. Erythrolamprus p. sublineatus is distributed in open and forested areas of southern Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina. It can be readily distinguished from the new species based on its ventral coloration (large, square-shaped, alternating blotches). Furthermore, this subspecies also lacks the wide interorbital black stripe and arrow-shaped nuchal black blotch (Figs 6G–H, 8I). In our phylogenetic analysis, E. ceii Dixon, 1991, appears nested within the E. poe­ cilogyrus complex. This species can be distinguished from E. aenigma based on its uniformly green dorsal coloration. In light of this, we conclude that E. aenigma cannot be assigned to any taxon of the Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus species complex.” (Entiauspe-Neto et al. 2021). 
CommentSynonymy partly after CEI 1993 who also presents a list of 28 names that have been associated with this species. PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970 listed 12 subspecies while DIXON & MARKEZICH 1992 recognized only 4 subspecies with most others synonymized with the nominate form (including reticulatus). The name “poecilogyrus” should be retained as the other earlier names have hardly been used (see DIXON & MARKEZICH 1992 for details).

Diet: mostly anurans.

Distribution: Not in Ecuador fide Torres-Carvajal et al. 2019: 299 ff). See map in Nogueira et al. 2019.

Type: unknown fide PETERS 1960 but AMNH fide DIXON & MARKEZICH 1992. 
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