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Erythrolamprus pygmaeus (COPE, 1868)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Amazon Tropical Forest Snake 
SynonymLiophis leucogaster JAN 1863: 289
Liophis pygmaeus COPE 1868
Leimadophis pygmaeus — AMARAL 1929
Liophis leucogaster — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 178
Umbrivaga pygmaea — MARKEZICH & DIXON 1979
Umbrivaga pygmaea — FRANK & RAMUS 1995
Umbrivaga pygmaea — KAWASHITA-RIBEIRO et al. 2011
Erythrolamprus leucogaster — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012
Erythrolamprus pygmaea — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012
Umbrivaga pygmaea — WALLACH et al. 2014: 761
Erythrolamprus pygmaeus — NATERA-MUMAW et al. 2015: 174
Erythrolamprus pygmaeus — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionS Colombia [Castro,F. (pers. comm.)], N Peru, E Ecuador, Brazil (Amazonas [HR 30: 175], Pará), Venezuela

Type locality: "Napo, or neighboring pt. of Maranon."  
TypesHolotype: ANSP 6668, a 176 mm specimen (J. Orton, winter 1867-1868). 
CommentDistribution: The type locality of Liophis leucogaster JAN 1863 is unknown; known only from the type specimen (PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970).

Synonymy: DIXON (1980) suggested that Liophis leucogaster is probably a synonym of U. pygmaeus which resembles a young L. reginae in pattern. The external morphological counts given by Jan fit well with those of U. pygmaeus. The tail/total length ratio is similar to U. pygmaeus (providing Jan's inches were a relatively close measurement of a live individual. WALLACH et al. 2014: 761 also listed Liophis leucogaster in the synonymy of Umbrivaga pyburni ({with a question mark). 
  • Cope, E.D. 1868. An examination of the Reptilia and Batrachia obtained by the Orton Expedition to Equador and the Upper Amazon, with notes on other species. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 20: 96-140 - get paper here
  • Duellman,W.E. & Mendelson III, J.R. 1995. Amphibians and reptiles from Northern Departamento Loreto, Peru: Taxonomy and Biogeography. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 55 (10): 329-376 - get paper here
  • Dunn, E.R. 1944. A revision of the Colombian snakes of the genera Leimadophis, Lygophis, Liophis, Rhadinaea, and Pliocercus, with a note on Colombian Coniophanes. Caldasia 2 (10): 479-495 - get paper here
  • Grazziotin, Felipe G.; Hussam Zaher, Robert W. Murphy, Gustavo Scrocchi, Marco A. Benavides, Ya-Ping Zhang and Sandro L. Bonatto 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the New World Dipsadidae (Serpentes: Colubroidea): a reappraisal. Cladistics DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00393.x - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1863. Enumerazione sistematica degli ofidi appartenenti al gruppo Coronellidae. Arch. Zool. Anat. Fisiol. 2 (2): 213-330 [1862] - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1865. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 13. Livraison. [Homalosoma mite]. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Kawashita-Ribeiro, Ricardo Alexandre; Vinícius Tadeu de Carvalho, Ana Caroline de Lima, Robson Waldemar Ávila, and Rafael de Fraga 2011. Morphology and geographical distribution of the poorly known snake Umbrivaga pygmaea (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) in Brazil. Phyllomedusa 10 (2): 177–182 - get paper here
  • Markezich, Allan L.; Dixon, James R. 1979. A new South American species of snake and comments on the genus Umbrivaga. Copeia 1979 (4): 698-701 - get paper here
  • Morato, S.A.A.; Calixto, P.O.; Mendes, L.R.; Gomes, R.; Galatti, U.; Trein, F.L.; Oliveira, F.S.; Ferreira, G.N. 2014. Guia fotográfico de identificação da herpetofauna da Floresta Nacional de Saracá-Taquera, Estado do Pará. Curitiba: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A.; 213 p. - get paper here
  • Morato, Sérgio Augusto Abrahão; Guilherme Nunes Ferreira; Michela Rossane Cavilha Scupino (eds.) 2018. Herpetofauna da Amazônia Central: Estudos na FLONA de Saracá-Taquera. Curitiba, Pr: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas, Pa: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A., 2018.<br />210p. - get paper here
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela. Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo,<br />Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins,<br />Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz0, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisnero 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Pazmiño-Otamendi G, Salazar-Valenzuela D. 2019. Reptiles of Ecuador: a resource-rich portal, with a dynamic checklist and photographic guides. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1): [General Section]: 209–229 (e178) - get paper here
  • Vechio, Francisco Dal; Mauro Teixeira Jr., Renato Sousa Recoder, Marco Aurélio de Sena, Sergio Marques Souza, Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues 2015. Distribution extension and revised map of Erythrolamprus pygmaeus (Cope, 1868) (Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Check List 11 (4): 1719 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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