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Eryx miliaris (PALLAS, 1773)

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Higher TaxaBoidae (Erycinae, Erycidae), Henophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesEryx miliaris nogaiorum NIKOLSKY 1910
Eryx miliaris miliaris (PALLAS 1773) 
Common NamesE: Dwarf Sand Boa, Desert Sand Boa, Tartar Sand Boa
G: Wüstensandboa, Östliche Sandboa
Russian: Песчаный удавчик
Chinese: 红沙蚺
E: Tartar Sand Boa [tataricus]
G: Tatarische Sandboa [tataricus]
Chinese: 东方沙蚺 [tataricus] 
SynonymAnguis miliaris PALLAS 1773: 718
Anguis helluo PALLAS 1814
Boa tatarica LICHTENSTEIN 1823: 104
Eryx miliaris — EICHWALD 1831
Eryx miliaris var. roborowskii BEDRIAGA 1906: 193
Eryx miliaris var. koslowi BEDRIAGA 1906: 193
Eryx tataricus TZAREVSKY 1915
Eryx speciosus TZAREVSKY 1915
Eryx tataricus speciosus TZAREVSKY 1916
Eryx miliaris rarus TZAREVSKY 1916
Eryx miliaris tritus TZAREVSKY 1916
Eryx miliaris incerta TZAREVSKY 1916
Eryx tataricus bogdanovi TZAREVSKY 1916
Eryx rickmersi WERNER 1930
Eryx speciosus — WERNER 1930
Eryx richmersi WERNER 1930 (fide R. KHALIKOV, pes. comm.)
Eryx jaculus miliaris — LEVITON 1959
Eryx tataricus — ANDERSON & LEVITON 1969
Eryx miliaris — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Eryx miliaris — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 207
Eryx tataricus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 209
Eryx miliaris tataricus — LAMBERT 2002
Eryx tataricus — JONES 2004
Eryx tataricus speciosus — JONES 2004
Eryx speciosus — ANANJEVA et al. 2006
Eryx miliaris tataricus — ZHAO 2006
Eryx tataricus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 289
Eryx miliaris — WALLACH et al. 2014: 289
Eryx cf. miliaris — RHADI et al. 2017
Eryx miliaris — REYNOLDS & HENDERSON 2018: 35
Eryx tataricus — REYNOLDS & HENDERSON 2018: 36
Eryx tataricus — LI et al. 2020

Eryx miliaris nogaiorum NIKOLSKY 1910
Eryx miliaris nogaiorum NIKOLSKY 1910: 90
Eryx nogaiorum — ROSS & MARZEC 1990
Eryx miliaris nogaiorum — JONES 2004
Eryx miliaris nogaiorum — VEDMEDERYA et al. 2009 
DistributionS Russia from western border of Caspian Sea (Caucasus) through Kazakhstan, Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, China (Xinjiang through Gansu to W Nei Mongol = Inner Mongolia, Ningxia), Mongolia

Type locality: coast of the Caspian Sea; Lectotype locality: Dagestan region of Russia.

nogaiorum: Type locality: "Nogai Steppe between the lower reaches of the Terk and Kuma rivers" [north-eastern Precaucasus] fide Nikolsky 1916:34.

speciosus (invalid): Pakistan (KHAN 2004); Tajikistan (Vakhsh River valley); Type locality: “Eastern Bukhara” (Vakhsh River valley in Tajikistan)

tataricus (invalid): Turkmenistan eastward to E Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, E Turkmenistan, Iran, Afghanistan, W Pakistan, W China (Xinjiang through Gansu to W Nei Mongol = Inner Mongolia and Ningxia), S Mongolia; Type locality: Tataria (= coast of the Aral Sea (fide KHALIKOV, pers. comm.)  
TypesLectotype: MNKNU 27350, designated by Vedmederya et al. (2009). Holotype: lost (presumed) fide KLUGE 1993.
Syntypes: ZMT [Caucasian Museum], as indicated by Nikolsky (1916:34) [nogaiorum]
Lectotype: ZMB 1461, adult unknown sex (E.F. Eversmann, 1820–1822), designated by Bauer et al. (2002: 167) [tataricus]
Holotype: ZISP 14009, a male [vittatus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. GL bis 810 mm, damit etwas kleiner als die beiden semisympatrischen Arten E. jaculus und E. tataricus bleibend. Von diesen beiden unterscheidet sich E. miliaris neben Pholidose- und Färbungsmerkmalen vor allem durch die Stellung der Augen, die nicht nach seitlich, sondern nach oben ausgerichtet sind (Abb. 10) (Darevsky in Böhme et al. 1993: 55). 
CommentSynonymy after KLUGE 1993 and partly after KHALIKOV & ANANJEVA (pers. comm.). WALLACH et al. 2014: 28 and REYNOLDS & HENDERSON 2018 consider tataricus as questionable and speciosus as synonym of tataricus. Reynolds et al. (2014) found that E. tataricus nests within E. miliaris and was considered a synonym of miliaris by ESKANDARZADEH et al. 2013, and formally synonymized by ESKANDARZADEH et al. 2020.

Subspecies: ROSS & MARZEC (1990) recognized the black sand boa, Eryx miliaris nogaiorum, as a distinct species; however, they gave no reference to document that change in status. See also Reynolds et al. 2014 and Reynolds & Henderson 2018 who recommend not to recognize E. tataricus or E. m. nogaiorum.

Distribution: The NE Iranian populations of E. tataricus are conspecific with E. miliaris (ESKANDARZADEH et al. 2013). The populations from China may be included in T. tataricus now. Not in Iran fide Zarrintab et al. 2017. The NE Iranian populations of E. tataricus are conspecific with E. miliaris (ESKANDARZADEH et al. 2013). Distribution: Does not occur in India (I, DAS, pers. comm.). May need correction for removal of E. vittatus. For a map see Sindaco et al. 2013.

NCBI taxID: 51873 [tataricus] 
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