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Eutrachelophis papilio ZAHER & PRUDENTE, 2019

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common Names 
SynonymEutrachelophis papilio ZAHER & PRUDENTE 2019: 9
Taeniophallus occipitalis – AVILA-PIRES et al. 2009
Eutrachelophis undescribed species – MYERS & MCDOWELL 2014
Eutrachelophis papilio — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionBrazil (Amazonas)

Type locality: Fazenda Scheffer (8°20′S, 65°43′W), Ituxi River, Municipality of Labrea, state of Amazonas, Brazil  
TypesHolotype. MPEG 25471, collected by Teresa Cristina Sauer de Avila-Pires on February 14, 1997 (fig. 6 in ZAHER & PRUDENTE 2019).
Paratypes. MPEG 18250, from Km 2 of BR 3041 (9°45′S, 67°39′W), Municipality of Rio Branco, state of Acre, Brazil, collected by Marinus Hoogmoed and Teresa Cristina Sauer Avila-Pires on January 1, 1990. MPEG 19950, Municipality of Careiro da Varzea (3°13′ S, 59°49′ W), state of Amazonas, Brazil, collected by Shawn S. Sartorius on December 22, 1998. MPEG 23862, Municipality of Coari (4°53′ S, 65°21′ W), state of Amazonas, Brazil, collected by Gleomar Maschio and Alessandra Travasso on November 19, 2009. MZUSP 10530, Urucu River (Locality roughly at 05°S, 65°W), state of Amazonas, Brazil, collector and date unknown. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Eutrachelophis papilio is distinguished from all other species by the following combination of characters: 15-15-15 number of dorsal scale rows; three gular scale rows, wider than long; 8 supralabials, 2-3 contacting loreal and 3-5 in orbit; 9 infralabials, 1–5 contacting anterior chinshields and 5-6 posterior chinshields; 139-145 ventrals; 68-76 subcaudals; conspicuous white butterfly-shaped ocellus on the nape; hemipenis slightly bilobed with apical disks; and 22-25 maxillary teeth subequal in size and recurved, followed by diastema and two ungrooved fangs.

Comparisons. Eutrachelophis papilio differs from Eu. bassleri by having a single laterally expanded, butterfly-shaped and black-rimmed white ocellus on the nape (vs. a pair of distinct round-shaped, black-rimmed white ocelli on the neck in Eu. bassleri), a higher number of ventrals (139-145 vs. 128-139 in Eu. bassleri), and a longer hemipenial lobe that tapers distally (rounded distally in Eu. bassleri).

The female described by Citeli et al. 2020 differed from the type series only in the number of ventral scales, which was higher than that recorded for other females [145 vs 139 (MPEG 18250) and 141 (MPEG 10530). 
CommentKnown from only 6 individuals.

Habitat: forest floor, moving near tree roots, in a terra firme forest, with large trees and streams nearby (Citeli et al. 2020). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is derived from the Latin word “papilio”, gender masculine, and noun in apposition, in reference to the butterfly-shaped white ocellus on the nape. 
  • Avila-Pires, T.C.S., Vitt, L.J., Sartorius, S.S., Zani, P.A. 2009. Squamata (Reptilia) from four sites in south- ern Amazonia, with a biogeographic analysis of Amazonian lizards. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Ciências Naturais 4: 99-118
  • Citeli, N.; De-Carvalho, M.; Brandão, R. 2020. Distribution update, conservation status and color in life of the rare Amazonian snake, Eutrachelophis papilio Zaher and Prudente 2019 (Serpentes: Xenodontini). Acta Amazonica 50: 252-255 - get paper here
  • Myers, Charles W. and Samuel B. McDowell 2014. New Taxa and Cryptic Species of Neotropical Snakes (Xenodontinae), with Commentary on Hemipenes as Generic and Specific Characters. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 385 (1) : 1-112. - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo,<br />Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins,<br />Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Zaher, Hussam and Ana L.C. Prudente 2019. The enigmatic Amazonian genus Eutrachelophis: morphological evidence and description of new taxa (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontini). Amphibia-Reptilia 41: 215-231 - get paper here
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