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Eutropis caraga BARLEY, DIESMOS, SILER, MARTINEZ & BROWN, 2020

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Mabuyinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Caraga Sun Skink 
SynonymEutropis caraga BARLEY, DIESMOS, SILER, MARTINEZ & BROWN 2020
Mabuya multicarinata — TAYLOR 1918: 247 [in part, misidentification].
Mabuya multicarinata multicarinata — BROWN & ALCALA 1980: 126 [in part, misidentification]
Eutropis multicarinata multicarinata — MAUSFELD & SCHMITZ 2003: 168 [by implication]
Eutropis Clade E — BARLEY et al. 2013: 3563 
DistributionPhilippines (Mindanao, Bohol, Dinagat, Samar, Siargao)

Type locality: Mount Lumot at 410 m, Municipality of Gingoog City, Misamis Oriental Province, Mindanao Island, Philippines (8.72168N, 125.07948E; datum 1⁄4 WGS84  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: PNM 9845, Female, formerly KU 334226), collected by R.M. Brown, 13 July 2012.
Paratypes: KU 334225, 334227– 334229, collected by RMB, M.B. Sanguila, and V. Yngente 16 July 2012, bearing the same locality data as the holotype; KU 
DiagnosisDiagnosis.—A species of Eutropis distinguished by the following combination of characters: (1) body medium-sized (SVL 64–84 mm in adults); (2) interparietal long, narrow, separating parietals; (3) paravertebrals 37–43; (4) sum of subdigital lamellae on all five toes of one foot 80–91; (5) ventral scale rows 26–30; (6) midbody scale rows 27–34; (7) keels on dorsal and lateral body scales moderately defined, 5–10 per scale; (8) lower eyelid scaly; (9) supraciliaries 6 or 7; (10) prefrontals separated; (11) primary temporal scales two; (12) dorsal and lateral body surface with relatively uniform bronze and dark brown coloration, respectively, without pronounced light stripes (Fig. 7).

Comparisons.—Critical comparisons for Eutropis caraga include other Philippine species of Eutropis, particularly those known from the southern islands of the archipelago. Eutropis caraga can be distinguished from E. rudis and E. multifasciata by its smaller size (adult SVL 64–84 mm), more slender body (vs. a larger, more robust body; adult SVL 101–141 mm in E. multifasciata and 76–92 in E. rudis) and the presence of more numerous (5–10) moderate keels on its dorsal scales (vs. 3 weak keels in E. multifasciata and 3 strong keels in E. rudis; Fig. 8). Eutropis caraga has more numerous (5–10) keels on the trunk dorsals than E. rugifera (which has 3–7 more raised and sharply defined keels), a slightly larger (64–84 mm adult SVL) body size (vs. 49–66 mm in E. rugifera), a large interparietal scale that separates the parietals (vs. a smaller interparietal, with parietals in contact posteriorly), and a broad, dark dorsolateral band (absent in E. rugifera). The new species can be readily distinguished from E. englei by color pattern, as E. caraga has a relatively uniform brown to olive-green dorsum (vs. a prominent series of five dark brown and four bluish-white stripes on the dorsum in E. englei). It can be distinguished from species in the E. indeprensa complex (such as E. lapulapu, with which it occurs sympatrically) by its larger (64–84 mm SVL) adult body size (vs. 45–70 mm in E. lapulapu), and typically more numerous subdigital toe lamellae (80–91 vs. 70–80 total subdigital toe lamellae). This species is morphologically very similar to E. multicarinata despite the fact that they occur sympatrically and are highly distinctive genetically (Fig. 5), although E. caraga, on average, does have more subdigital toe lamellae than E. multicarinata (80–91 vs. 74–80).

Coloration in life.—Dorsal ground coloration and tail an iridescent bronze to olive coloration, usually with scattered dark brown flecks; head and neck brown. The lateral surfaces contain a thick, dark brown band that extends from the eye to the hindlimb. Chin creamy white with dark markings. Dorsal surfaces of forelimbs, hindlimbs, and digits dark with indistinct spots. Frequently there are traces of light lines above and below the lateral brown stripes. 
Comment 
EtymologyThe new name caraga is a feminine noun in apposition derived from the Caraga Region of northeastern Mindanao Island and the immediate offshore islands of Dinagat and Siargao, which includes the type locality. 
References
  • Barley, A. J., Diesmos, A. C., Siler, C. D., Martinez, C. M. & Brown, R. M. 2020. Taxonomic Revision of Philippine Sun Skinks (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae: Eutropis), and Descriptions of Eight New Species. Herpetol. Monogr. 34: 39–70
  • BARLEY, ANTHONY J.; JORDAN WHITE, ARVIN C. DIESMOS, RAFE M. BROWN 2013. THE CHALLENGE OF SPECIES DELIMITATION AT THE EXTREMES: DIVERSIFICATION WITHOUT MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGE IN PHILIPPINE SUN SKINKS. Evolution, DOI: 10.1111/evo.12219 - get paper here
  • Brown, WC. & A.C. ALCALA 1980. Philippine Lizards of the family Scincidae. Silliman Univ. Nat. Sci., Dumaguete City, Mon., Ser. 2: i-xi + 1-246.
  • MAUSFELD, Patrick & Andreas SCHMITZ 2003. Molecular phylogeography, intraspecific variation and speciation of the Asian scincid lizard genus Eutropis Fitzinger, 1843 (Squamata: Reptilia: Scincidae): taxonomic and biogeographic implications. Org. Divers. Evol. 3: 161–171 - get paper here
  • Taylor, Edward H. 1918. Reptiles of the Sulu Archipelago. Philippine Journal of Science 13 (5d): 233-267 - get paper here
 
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