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Ficimia hardyi MENDOZA-QUIJANO & SMITH, 1993

IUCN Red List - Ficimia hardyi - Endangered, EN

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Hardy's Hook-nosed Snake
S: Nariz de Gancho de Hardy 
SynonymFicimia hardyi MENDOZA-QUIJANO & SMITH 1993
Ficimia hardyi — WALLACH et al. 2014: 296 
DistributionMexico (Hidalgo, Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí [07790])

Type locality: 3.8 Km NW Zoquiapán (~10 Km W Zacualtipán), municipality of Metztitlán, Hidalgo, México. Elevation: 1480 m.  
TypesHolotype: MZFC 4877. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A member of the genus Ficimia, having an upturned, sharp-edged rostral contacting the frontal; 17 midbody, smooth scale rows; single apical pits; no anal ridges; anal divided; nasal fused with first supralabial; loreal fused with prefrontal. Differing from all other species of the genus in having a combination of 43-47 dark-edged, light-centered dorsal blotches on body, 2-4 scales long at mid-line, 17-22 blotches on tail in males, 15 in only female; no internasals; two postoculars; posterior chinshields in broad medial contact; ventrals 130-136 in males, 140 in the female; caudals 44-46 in males, 40 in the female (MENDOZA-QUIJANO & SMITH 1993).

Description of Holotype. An adult, SVL 282 mm, tail 76 mm, total length 358 mm, tail/total length 0.212. Entire gular region and left lower jaw damaged, otherwise condition excellent. As in diagnosis/definition for non-variant characters. One preocular; 7-7 supralabials, 3rd and 4th contacting eye, 2nd and 3rd the preocular, 2nd the prefrontal, 1st and 2nd the nasal; latter divided below naris, entire above; temporals 1-2, anterior contacting supralabials 5 and 6, lower secondary 6 and 7; lower postocular contacting supralabials 4 and 5; 5-4 dorsals contacting left and right parietals, respectively. Infralabials 7-?, 1st contacting its mate, anterior three contacting anterior chinshields, 3rd and 4th the posterior; latter about half size of and its length 44%that of anterior chinshields, in contact medially; gulars indeterminate because of injury. Ratios of head measurements: naris-snout length/eye-snout distance, 0.324; eye-lip distance/eye diameter, 0.642; rostral length/width, 1.4;rostral length /rostral-frontal suture length, 2.0; rostral-frontal suture length/frontal length, 0.441; frontal width/frontal length, 0.823; interparietal suture length/frontal length, 0.855. Scale rows 17-17-17; ventrals 133; subcaudals 44; dorsal caudals reduced to 6 at level of sub-caudals 13-14, to 4 at 23; ratio, dorsal caudal reduction levels at 6/4, 0.565 (MENDOZA-QUIJANO & SMITH 1993).

Coloration: Dorsal ground color gray-brown, with 44 transverse dark blotches on body, two scales long on posterior and medial parts of body, three on anterior part, all black-edged, light-bordered and light-centered, 1st not contacting parietals; each blotch with its longer central part 3-5 scale rows wide, narrowly connected on each side with a shorter (1-2 scale lengths) lateral part extending to 5th scale row on each side; a lateral series of roughly circular dark spots, directly opposite the dorsal spots but narrowly separated from them, tending to be lightcentered, on scale rows 2-4, each occupying parts of usually 5 scales; a sublateral series of more numerous, smaller, less well-defined dark spots involving the 1st dorsal scale row and lateral edges of ventrals. Dorsal caudal blotches 17, irregular toward tip of tail; lateral and sublateral series united except at base of tail, and with dorsal series toward tip. Venter and subcaudal surfaces mostly light but with scattered dark pigment throughout, concentrated near anterior edges of ventrals but evenly scattered on subcaudals. Head without distinct pattern, but a large, vague dark mark on parietals, extending laterally onto supralabials; a vague dark line across head through the rostral-frontal suture and to lip along the rear edge of the 2nd supralabial; a broad dark band passing posteroventrally from eye to lip (MENDOZA-QUIJANO & SMITH 1993). 
EtymologyNamed after Laurence M. Hardy, who studied the genus Ficimia intensively. 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Fernández-Badillo, Leonardo & Irene Goyenechea-Mayer Goyenechea 2010. Anfibios y reptiles del valle del Mezquital, Hidalgo, México. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 81: 705- 712
  • Fernández-Badillo, Leonardo; Norma Leticia Manríquez-Morán; Jesús Martín Castillo-Cerón & Irene Goyenechea 2016. Análisis herpetofaunístico de la zona árida del estado de Hidalgo. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 156–170 - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Hernández-Ibarra,X. et al. 1999. Geographic distribution: Ficimia hardyi. Herpetological Review 30 (4): 235 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Woolrich-Piña GA 2018. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of San Luis Potosí, Mexico, with comparisons with adjoining states. ZooKeys 753: 83-106 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A. and James R. Dixon 2013. Amphibians and Reptiles of San Luis Potosí. Eagle Mountain Publishing, xii + 300 pp.
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A., Geoffrey R. Smith 2015. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. Check List 11 (3): 1642 - get paper here
  • Mendoza-Quijano F; Smith H M 1993. A new species of hooknose snake, Ficimia (Reptilia, Serpentes). Journal of Herpetology 27 (4): 406-410 - get paper here
  • Ramirez-Bautista, Aurelio; Hernandez-Ibarra, Xochitl; Smith, Hobart M. 1999. External Morphological Variation in Hardy's Hooknose Snake Ficimia hardyi (Squamata: Colubridae). Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 35 (3): 81 - get paper here
  • Terán-Juárez, Sergio A., Elí García Padilla, Vicente Mata-Silva, Jerry D. Johnson and Larry David Wilson. 2016. The herpetofauna of Tamaulipas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (1): 43–113 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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