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Ficimia olivacea GRAY, 1849

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Mexican Hook-nosed Snake
G: Mexikanische Hakennasennatter
S: Nariz de Gancho Huaxtena 
SynonymFicimia olivacea GRAY 1849
Ficimia olivacea — GARMAN 1884: 84
Ficimia olivacea — STUART 1935: 51
Ficimia olivacea — LINER 1994
Ficimia olivaceus — LINER 2007
Ficimia olivacea — WALLACH et al. 2014: 296 
DistributionMexico (incl. Oaxaca, Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Querétaro, Hidalgo, Puebla)

Type locality: "Mexico."  
Reproductionoviparous (Wright and Wright 1957:281) 
TypesSyntypes: BMNH 1946.1.5.44, a 451 mm male (H. Finck), and 1946.1.5.45, a 361 mm male (H. Finck). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus). Like Gyalopion, except: Maxillary teeth with very faint lateral grooves or depressions; rostral in contact with frontal, separating prefrontals medially; loreal absent; internasals present or absent (fused); ventrals 140 to 160, caudals 32 to 42 (Smith & Taylor 1941: 362).

Diagnosis. Rostral in contact with frontal; internasals normally absent; two postoculars, or if only one, the other obviously fused with it or with supraoculars; uniform dark gray or brown above, no evidence of transverse markings (apparently based on 4 specimens, Smith & Taylor 1941: 366). 
CommentDistribution: Not in Guatemala (KÖHLER 2008), in contrast to reports in Stuart (1935).

Type species: Ficimia olivacea GRAY 1849 is the type species of the genus Ficimia GRAY 1849. 
EtymologyThe origin of the generic name is unknown (fide LEMOS-ESPINAL & DIXON 2013).  
  • Casas-Andreu, G., F.R. Méndez-De la Cruz and X. Aguilar-Miguel. 2004. Anfibios y Reptiles; pp. 375–390, in A.J.M. García-Mendoza, J. Ordoñez and M. Briones-Salas (ed.). Biodiversidad de Oaxaca. Instituto de Biología, UNAM-Fondo Oaxaqueño para la Conservación de la Naturaleza-World Wildlife Fund, México, D. F.
  • Dixon, James R. and Julio A. Lemos-Espinal 2010. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Queretaro, Mexico. Tlalnepantla UNAM, 428 pp.
  • Garman,Samuel 1884. The reptiles and batrachians of North America. Mem. Mus. comp. Zool, Cambridge (Massachusetts), 8 (3): xxxiv + 185 pp. [1883] [CNAH reprint 10] - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1849. Catalogue of the specimens of snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Edward Newman, London, i-xv; 1-125. - get paper here
  • Hardy L M 1978. Ficimia olivacea Gray. Brown hook-nosed snake. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 219: 1-2 - get paper here
  • Hardy L M 1990. Ficimia Gray. Southern hook-nosed snakes. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 471: 1-5 - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Woolrich-Piña GA 2018. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of San Luis Potosí, Mexico, with comparisons with adjoining states. ZooKeys 753: 83-106 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A. and James R. Dixon 2013. Amphibians and Reptiles of San Luis Potosí. Eagle Mountain Publishing, xii + 300 pp.
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A., Geoffrey R. Smith 2015. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. Check List 11 (3): 1642 - get paper here
  • Liner, Ernest A. 2007. A CHECKLIST OF THE AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MEXICO. Louisiana State University Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science 80: 1-60 - get paper here
  • Martin, Plul S. 1958. A biogeography of reptiles and amphibians in the Gomez Farias Region, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Miscellaneous publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (101): 1-102 + 7 plates - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 6–62 - get paper here
  • Mendoza-Quijano F; Smith H M 1993. A new species of hooknose snake, Ficimia (Reptilia, Serpentes). Journal of Herpetology 27 (4): 406-410 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Dieter 2007. Ungewöhnliches Futter für Mexikanische Hakennasennattern. Ophidia 1 (2): 22-24 - get paper here
  • Stuart, L. C. 1935. A contribution to a knowledge of the herpetology of a portion of the savanna region of Central Peten, Guatemala. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Miscellaneous Publications 29: 1-56 - get paper here
  • Terán-Juárez, Sergio A., Elí García Padilla, Vicente Mata-Silva, Jerry D. Johnson and Larry David Wilson. 2016. The herpetofauna of Tamaulipas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (1): 43–113 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Woolrich-Piña, G. A., E. García-Padilla, D. L. DeSantis, J. D. Johnson, V. Mata-Silva, and L. D. Wilson. 2017. The herpetofauna of Puebla, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(4): 791–884 - get paper here
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