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Fowlea punctulatus (GÜNTHER, 1858)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymTropidonotus punctulatus GÜNTHER 1858: 247
Tropidonotus punctulatus — THEOBALD 1868: 48
Fowlea peguensis THEOBALD 1868 (fide SMITH 1943)
Tropidonotus punctulatus — BOULENGER 1893: 228
Nerodia punctulata WALL 1923 (fide SMITH 1943)
Natrix punctulata — SMITH 1943: 292
Xenochrophis punctulatus — DAS 1996: 60
Xenochrophis punctulatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 799
Fowlea punctulatus — PURKAYASTHA et al. 2019 
DistributionMyanmar (= Burma), Thailand (Mae Hong Son Province)

Type locality: unknown  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesType: BMNH 1946.1.13.59 (and possibly additional specimens). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Malnate (1960) stated that the members of this genus have hemipenes and sulcus spermaticus divided; maxillary teeth fewer than 30, in continuous series, the teeth becoming larger posteriorly; internasals narrowed anteriorly, nostrils dorso-laterally; apical pits absent or obscure pits present on neck only (cited in Purkayashta et al. 2019 who do not provide an updated diagnosis).

Diagnosis (genus). (1) body size large (maximum TL 1226 mm), fairly stout; (2) head broad, stout, moderately distinct from neck; (3) internasals mostly paired, narrowed anteriorly; (4) prefrontals most two, horizontally arranged; (5) rostral large, broader than high; (6) nasal partially divided, nostrils directed dorsolaterally; (7) dorsal scale rows mostly 19 – 19 – 17, moderately keeled and stronger posteriorly; (8) maxillary teeth 22 – 28, gradually enlarged posteriorly, without diastema (9) hemipenis bilobed, spinous throughout, papillae present on the apex of both lobes, longitudinal folds present; (10) two oblique, parallel dark stripes on lateral head mostly present (Cheng et al. 2021: 211). 
CommentDistribution: Reports from India are based on unvoucered specimens. Not in India fide I. Das (pers. comm., 25 July 2012).

Synonymy: Boulenger 1893, Smith 1943.

Type species: Tropidonotus punctulatus GÜNTHER 1858: 247 is the type species of the genus Fowlea THEOBALD 1868 which was resurrected from the synonymy of Xenochrophis by Purkayashta et al. 2019.

Key: Cheng et al. 2021 provide a key to the genera of Xenochrophis sensu stricto, Atretium, and Fowlea. 
EtymologyThe generic nomen of Fowlea was named by Mr. E. Fowle, who is the collector of type specimen of Fowlea peguensis. The gender of this generic name is masculine. 
References
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Cheng, Yu-Qi; Jin-Long Ren, Guang-Xiang Zhu, Jia-Tang Li 2021. On the Taxonomy of Atretium yunnanensis Anderson, 1879 (Squamata: Natricidae), with Redescriptions and Natural History Data of the Poorly Known Species. Russian Journal of Herpetology 28 (4): 205-218 - get paper here
  • Dowling, H.G., & Jenner, J.V. 1988. Snakes of Burma: checklist of reported species and bibliography. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (76): 19 pp. - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1858. Catalogue of Colubrine snakes of the British Museum. London, I - XVI, 1 - 281
  • Pauwels,O.S.G.; David, P., Nutphand, W. & Chimsunchart, C. 2001. First record of Xenochrophis punctulatus (GÜNTHER 1858) (Serpentes: Colubridae: Natricinae) from Thailand. Hamadryad 26 (2): 247-252 - get paper here
  • Purkayastha, Jayaditya; JATIN KALITA, Rajeev Kungur Brahma, Robin Doley, MADHURIMA DAS 2018. A review of the relationships of Xenochrophis cerasogaster Cantor, 1839 (Serpentes: Colubridae) to its congeners. Zootaxa 4514 (1): 126-136, DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4514.1.10 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Theobald, William 1868. Catalogue of the reptiles of British Birma, embracing the provinces of Pegu, Martaban, and Tenasserim; with descriptions of new or little-known species. Zool. J. Linnean Soc. 10: 4-67. - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Zug, G. R., J. H. Blackburn III, S. W. Kyi. 2006. Checkered keelbacks (Xenochrophis - Reptilia: Serpentes: Natricidae) at the Moyingyi Wetland Bird Sanctuary, Myanmar. Hamadryad 30 (1 & 2):157-166. - get paper here
 
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