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Fowlea schnurrenbergeri (KRAMER, 1977)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Bar-necked Keelback 
SynonymXenochrophis flavipunctatus schnurrenbergeri KRAMER 1977
Xenochrophis schnurrenbergeri — VOGEL & DAVID 2006
Xenochrophis schnurrenbergeri — WALLACH et al. 2014: 799
Fowlea schnurrenbergeri — PURKAYASTHA et al. 2019 
DistributionNepal, Pakistan, N India (Orissa, lalpaiguri, West Bengal; Nishangara, Varanasi [Banares], Uttar Pradesh, and Pattamundei, Kendrapara)

Type locality: Devanandpur, Bhairawa, Nepal, 83° 28’, 27° 30’, 150 m elevation  
TypesHolotype: MHNG 1377.44 fide KRAMER 1977, from Java (in the Greater Sundas, Indonesia); Collected by Hans Schnurrenberger. 
DiagnosisDescription: This (sub-) species is characterized by (1) a dorsal pattern chess-like, but made of small dark blotches; (2) a broad, straight crossbar on the nape; (3) two well-defi ned subocular streaks, the posterior one extending from the eye to the corner of the mouth but not meeting the nuchal crossbar; (4) ventral and subcaudal scales all with entire, broad, dark margins [VOGEL & DAVID 2006]. Hemipenis is elongated extended up to subcaudals; the sulcus spermaticus bifurcates much below the apex and each lobe is a distinct elongated entering the disc at the apex; spines in hemipenis are evenly distributed throughout; prominent hooks below the point of bifurcation present (Purkayastha, et al. 2010)  
CommentSee also Xenochrophis piscator.

VIDAL et al. (2007) placed Xenochrophis in the family Natricidae.

Distribution: not in Pakistan fide KHAN 2004.

Habitat: mostly aquatic (flavipunctatus + schnurrenbergeri)

Behavior: diurnal. 
  • Kästle , W., Rai, K. & Schleich, H.H. 2013. FIELD GUIDE to Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. ARCO-Nepal e.V., 625 pp. - get paper here
  • Kramer, E. 1977. Zur Schlangenfauna Nepals. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 84 (3): 721-761. - get paper here
  • Mohapatra, Pratyush P., Sushil K. Dutta and Siba Prasad Parida. 2010. Report of Xenochrophis schnurrenbergeri Kramer, 1977 (Serpentes: Natricidae) from Orissa, India. Russ. J. Herpetol. 17 (2): 94-96 - get paper here
  • Purkayastha, Jayaditya; JATIN KALITA, Rajeev Kungur Brahma, Robin Doley, MADHURIMA DAS 2018. A review of the relationships of Xenochrophis cerasogaster Cantor, 1839 (Serpentes: Colubridae) to its congeners. Zootaxa 4514 (1): 126-136, DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4514.1.10 - get paper here
  • Purkayastha, Jayaditya; Madhurima Das, and Saibal Sengupta 2011. Urban herpetofauna: a case study in Guwahati City of Assam, India. Herpetology Notes 4: 195-202 - get paper here
  • Purkayastha, Jayaditya; Madhurima Das; Saibal Sengupta & Sushil K Dutta 2010. Notes on Xenochrophis schnurrenbergeri Kramer, 1977 (Serpentes: Colubridae) from Assam, India with some comments on its morphology anddistribution. Herpetology Notes 3: 175-180
  • Vogel, G. & Patrick David 2006. On the taxonomy of the Xenochrophis piscator complex (Serpentes, Natricidae). Herpetologica Bonnensis II: 241-246 - get paper here
  • Vogel, Gernot 2010. Zur Systematik der Schlangen der orientalischen Region: Forschungsdefizite führen zur Unterschätzung der Artenvielfalt. Ophidia 4 (2): 18-26 - get paper here
  • VOGEL, Gernot & Patrick DAVID 2012. A revision of the species group of Xenochrophis piscator (Schneider, 1799) (Squamata: Natricidae). Zootaxa 3473: 1–60 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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