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Furcifer monoceras (BOETTGER, 1913)

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Higher TaxaChamaeleonidae, Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymChamaeleon monoceras BOETTGER 1913
Chamaeleo monoceras — HILLENIUS 1963: 204
Furcifer monoceras — GLAW & VENCES 1994: 252
Furcifer monoceras — NECAS 1999: 214
Furcifer monoceras — SENTÍS et al. 2018 
DistributionMadagascar (Betsako, Mojanga)

Type locality: Betsako bei Mojunga, N.W. Madagascar  
TypesHolotype. SMF 16420, obviously adult male, collected by A. Voeltzkow in 1905 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A small chameleon (SVL 71 mm; TaL 48.4 mm; TL 119.4 mm) characterized by a long, rigid rostral appendage that progressively narrows, rostral crests that fuse at the tip of the rostral appendage, poorly developed lateral and temporal crests and a small parietal crest, a low casque, a heterogeneous scalation along the body, head and extremities, a dorsal crest formed by small conical scales that become progressively smaller, a poorly developed gular crest, absence of a ventral crest, a very short tail (tail tip formed irregularly), extension of the nasal aperture along the ossified rostral appendage, lack of serrations along the dorsal and ventral edges of the bones of the rostral appendage, an elongated prefrontal, a smooth postorbitofrontal completely connected with the frontal, and a long sagittal crest.
The holotype of Furcifer monoceras differs from F. rhinoceratus by a smaller body size, a shorter tail relative to the body, a markedly elongated rostral appendage with elongated scales, presence of a gular crest, absence of a ventral crest, and by a higher number of peripheral scales on rostral appendage (23 vs. 14–17). In skull structure they differ in the shape of the nasal aperture (extending along the rostral appendage vs. rounded), in the supraorbital fontanelle (postorbitofrontal not meeting prefrontal vs. meeting prefrontal), and in the parietal shape (extended vs. rounded). Furcifer monoceras differs from F. labordi and F. voeltzkowi (see below) by a much lower casque, a less developed gular crest, and absence of a ventral crest. It can be distinguished from all other Furcifer species except F. angeli and F. antimena by the presence of a single, ossified, and relatively long rostral appendage. From both of these species it differs by smaller male body size (SVL 71 mm vs. 160–170 mm), less pronounced dorsal crests, and much longer rostral appendage; from F. antimena it additionally differs by its low casque (vs. high), and from F. angeli it additionally differs by a less pronounced gular crest (SENTÍS et al. 2018). 
CommentOnly known from the male holotype from Betsako (SENTÍS et al. 2018) 
EtymologyNamed after Gr.: monos, prefix meaning one or single; keras > ceras, horn: single horn, denoting the single nasal appendage (Charles Klaver, pers. comm., 11 Jan 2023). 
  • Boettger, O. 1913. Reptilien und Amphibien von Madagascar, den Inseln und dem Festland Ostafrikas. Pp. 269-375. In: Voeltzkow, A. Reise in Ostafrika in den Jahren 1903-1905. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse. Vol. 3. Systematische Arbeiten. Schweizerbart’ sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Nägele und Sproesser, Stuttgart
  • Glaw ,F. & Vences, M. 1994. A Fieldguide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Vences & Glaw Verlag, Köln (ISBN 3-929449-01-3)
  • Hillenius, D. 1963. Notes on chameleons I. Comparative cytology: aid and new complications in Chameleon-taxonomy. Beaufortia, Amsterdam 9: 201-218
  • Necas, Petr 1999. Chameleons - Nature's Hidden Jewels. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt; 348 pp.; ISBN 3-930612-04-6 (Europe)<br />ISBN 1-57524-137-4 (USA, Canada)
  • SENTÍS, MARINA; YIYIN CHANG, MARK D. SCHERZ, DAVID PRÖTZEL, FRANK GLAW 2018. Rising from the ashes: resurrection of the Malagasy chameleons Furcifer monoceras and F. voeltzkowi (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae), based on micro-CT scans and external morphology. Zootaxa 4483 (3): 549–566 - get paper here
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