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Gekko hulk GRISMER, PINTO, QUAH, ANUAR, COTA, MCGUIRE, ISKANDAR, WOOD & GRISMER, 2022

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymGekko hulk GRISMER, PINTO, QUAH, ANUAR, COTA, MCGUIRE, ISKANDAR, WOOD & GRISMER 2022 
DistributionPeninsular Malaysia (Pulau Tioman)

Type locality: Tekek-Juara trail on Pulau Tioman, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia (2.821021°N 104.179596°E; 462 m)  
ReproductionOviparous; 2-3 eggs per clutch (Grismer et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: LSUHC 6284 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: maximum SVL of 161.3
mm, 10–15 supralabials, 9–13 infralabilas, 3–5 internarial
scales, 13–24 frontal scales, 4–8 chin scales, 84–110
midbody scales, 16–21 paravertebral tubercles, 9–11 longitudinal
rows of tubercles, 22–28 ventral scales, 14–19
1st toe subdigital lamellae, 18–24 4th toe lamellae; 6–13
precolacal pores in males (absent in females); subcaudals
enlarged; thin, white nuchal band at base of occiput
composed of closely spaced spots; thin dark nuchal band
absent or faded and never contacting eyes; small white
ocelli confined to dorsal tubercles or their anterior margin
in six or seven transverse rows; and no thick dark reticulum
on body

Comparisons: Wood et al. (2020a) erected the subgenus
Gekko (Gekko) based on the phylogenetic relationships
of the holotype of G. hulk sp. nov. (LSUHC 6284) and
its inferred close relationship to the generotype species
G. gecko (Rösler et al. 2011) in order to contain the species
G. albofasciolatus; G. gecko (Linnaeus, 1758); G.
nutaphandi Bauer, Sumontha, and Pauwels, 2008; G.
reevesii (Gray, 1831); G. siamensis Grossmann and Ulber,
1990; G. smithii s.s.; and G. verreauxi Tytler, 1864.
To this we add G. albomaculatus, G. hulk sp. nov., and
G. stoliczkai. Although several authors have used dorsal
ground color as a diagnostic character (e.g. Rösler et al.
2011; Otal et. al. 1991), it is too variable in all species to
be of diagnostic significance (see above). Chandramouli
et al. (2021) noted several statistically significant differences
in meristic and morphometric characters between
G. smithii s.l. and G. stoliczkai. No data or formal analysis
has ever been forwarded to argue that Gekko taylori
Ota and Nabhitabhata, 1991 is a junior synonym of G. siamensis.
Thus, the former remains in G. (Gekko) pending
the outcome of current investigations (Grismer unpubl).
Gekko hulk sp. nov. can be separated from other species
of the subgenus G. (Gekko) by a number of discrete
characters (Table 10). Gekko hulk sp. nov. differs from
G. gecko and G. smithii by having a much smaller maximum
SVL (161.3 versus 185.0 and 191.0, respectively)
and from G. nutaphandi (SVL 117.0) and G. stoliczkai
(SVL 128.4) by having a larger maximum SVL. It differs
from G. verreauxi by having the rostral scale in contact
with the external nares as opposed to them being separated
by a small scale. Gekko hulk sp. nov. differs from G.
gecko and G. reevesi by having occipital scales and those
on the top of the head smaller than the scales on the rostrum
as opposed to them being the same size and having
enlarged versus small subcaudal scales. It differs from G.
reevesi by having 9–11 versus 12–18 longitudinal rows
of dorsal tubercles. Male G. hulk sp. nov. differ from G.
albofasciolatus, G. nutaphandi, G. reevesi, G. smithii, and
G. stoliczkai in having fewer precloacal pores (6–13) as
opposed to 13–15, 17–22, 13–20, 13–15, and 13–15, respectively.
Gekko hulk sp. nov. has a turquoise/green iris
which separates it from G. gecko and G. reevesi that have
a gold/copper to olive/brown iris, from G. nutaphandi
which has a bright-red iris, and from G. verreauxi which
has a golden iris. It differs from G. albomaculatus by not
having a thin, white, solid nuchal band (except for one
specimen from Pulau Tioman). Gekko hulk sp. nov. differs
from G. albofasciolatus by having as opposed to lacking
a white nuchal band. Gekko hulk sp. nov. differs from G.
smithii in that the small white dorsal spots, if not confined
to the tubercles, tend to border them anteriorly, whereas in
G. smithii, the dorsal tubercles are surrounded by a large
white ocellus in northern populations and the smaller
ocelli in the southern populations only tend to border the
tubercles posteriorly. Gekko hulk sp. nov. has a number
of significantly different mean meristic and morphometric
values as well as significantly different morphospatial
placement that separate it from G. albofaciolatus, G. albomaculatus,
and G. smithii (Figs 3–6; Tables 6–9). 
CommentDiet: Arthropods and smaller geckos (Grismer et al. 2022) 
EtymologyNamed after ‘‘The Incredible Hulk’’, who is a fictional character and superhero created by Stan Lee and artist Jack Kirby in 1962 and appears in the Marvel Comics publications. When angry, The Incredible Hulk becomes a large, green-skinned, muscular beast possessing great physical strength and a very aggressive temperament— all characteristics of Gekko hulk sp. nov. The specific epithet “hulk” is a noun in apposition 
References
  • Grismer LL, del Pinto L, Quah ESH, Anuar S, Cota M, McGuire JA, Iskandar DT, Wood PL Jr, Grismer JL 2022. Phylogenetic and multivariate analyses of Gekko smithii Gray, 1842 recover a new species from Peninsular Malaysia and support the resurrection of G. albomaculatus (Giebel, 1861) from Sumatra. Vertebrate Zoology 72 47–80 - get paper here
 
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