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Gekko trinotaterra (BROWN, 1999)

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common Names 
SynonymPtychozoon trinotaterra BROWN 1999: 990
Ptychozoon trinotaterra — NGUYEN et al. 2009
Gekko (Ptychozoon) trinotaterra — WOOD et al. 2019
Gekko (Ptychozoon) trinotaterra — WOOD et al. 2020 
DistributionThailand, Vietnam, Cambodia

Type locality: Thailand, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Amphoe Pak Thong Chai, Sakaerat, 14°30'N, 101°55' E  
TypesHolotype: FMNH 181825, paratypes: ROM 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Ptychozoon trinotaterra differs from all known species of Ptychozoon except P interme dium by the presence of three dark transverse bands in the axilla-groin region (vs four in remaining species). The new species differs from P. intermedium and further from P horsfieldiiby the presence of an enlarged (vs reduced) tail terminus, lateral (vs more caudal) orientation of the denticulate lobes of the tail, and the arrangement of preanofemoral pore-bearing scales in a continuous series (vs preanals and femorals separated). Ptychozoon trinotaterra differs from P lionotum in having a smaller maximum body size (Table 1), 15-16 (vs 18-23) denticulate tail lobes, reduced lobe fusion at the proximal border of the straight-edged tail terminus (vs crenulate tail terminus composed of 3-9 denticulate lobes fused at the proximal border), and absence (vs presence) of a predigital notch in the preantebrachial cutaneous expansion. Ptychozoon trinotaterra differs from P kuhli in having a smaller maximum body size (Table 1), limited terminal tail flap expansion (vs lateral expansion of the terminal flap well beyond the nearest denticulate lobe), and the absence (vs presence) of paravertebral tubercle rows. The new species is distinguished from P rhaco phorus by its larger body size, absence (vs presence) of highly spinose dorsal tubercles, presence (vs absence) of a terminal tail flap, presence (vs absence) of a lateral infraauricular cutaneous expansion, and presence (vs absence) of enlarged, imbricate membrane support scales on limb and midbody cutaneous expansions. Table 1 summarizes the distribution of diagnostic characters within the genus Ptychozoon and the Comparisons section provides more extensive comparisons between the new species and individual congeners (Brown 1999). 
EtymologyNamed after the three transverse dark bands in the axill-groin region (Latin “tri-” and “nota”). This species is the only known Ptychozoon from the Asian mainland ("terra"). 
  • Bobrov V.V., Semenov D.V. 2008. Lizards of Vietnam [in Russian]. Moscow, 236 pp.
  • Brown, Rafe M. 1999. New species of parachute gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: genus Ptychozoon) from northeastern Thailand and central Vietnam. Copeia 1999 (4): 990-1001 - get paper here
  • Brown, Rafe M.; Cameron D. Siler, L. Lee Grismer, Indraneil Das, Jimmy A. McGuire 2013. Phylogeny and cryptic diversification in Southeast Asian flying geckos. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 66 (2):351-361 [2012] - get paper here
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Das, I. & Vijayakumar, S.P. 2009. New species of Ptychozoon (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from the Nicobar Archipelago, Indian Ocean. Zootaxa 2095: 8–20 - get paper here
  • Fitzsimons, James A 2017. Ecological Notes on the Three-Banded Parachute Gecko Ptychozoon trinotaterra in Southern Vietnam. Russ. J. Herpetol. 24 (4): 327-328 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; PERRY L. JR. WOOD, MYINT KYAW THURA, MARTA S. GRISMER, RAFE M. BROWN, BRYAN L. STUART 2018. Geographically structured genetic variation in Ptychozoon lionotum (Squamata: Gekkonidae) and a new species from an isolated volcano in Myanmar. Zootaxa 4514 (2): 202–214 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; PERRY L. WOOD JR., JESSE L. GRISMER, EVAN S. H. QUAH, NEANG THY, SOMPHOUTHONE PHIMMACHAK, NIANE SIVONGXAY, SENGVILAY SEATEUN, BRYAN L. STUART, CAMERON B. SILER, DANIEL G. MULCAHY, TASHITSO ANAMZA & RAFE M. BROWN 2019. Geographic structure of genetic variation in the Parachute Gecko Ptychozoon lionotum Annandale, 1905 across Indochina and Sundaland with descriptions of three new species. Zootaxa 4638 (2): 151–198 - get paper here
  • Hartmann, T., Betts, A.B., De Greef, S. & Ihlow, F. 2014. First record of the rare parachute gecko Ptychozoon trinotaterra Brown, 1999 from Cambodia. Cambodian Journal of Natural History, 2014, 12–13 - get paper here
  • Kunya, K.; O.S.G. Pauwels; P. Sairum; A. Taokratok 2011. Squamata, Gekkonidae, Ptychozoon trinotaterra Brown, 1999: Rediscovery in Thailand. Check List 7 (6): 820-822 - get paper here
  • Nguyen, S.V., Ho, C.T. and Nguyen, T.Q. 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • SUMONTHA, MONTRI; OLIVIER S.G. PAUWELS, KIRATI KUNYA, CHAIWAT LIMLIKHITAKSORN, SIRICHAI RUKSUE, APIRAT TAOKRATOK, MICHEL ANSERMET & LAWAN CHANHOME 2012. A new species of Parachute Gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: genus Ptychozoon) from Kaeng Krachan National Park, western Thailand. Zootaxa 3513: 68–78 - get paper here
  • Wood Jr, Perry L.; Xianguang Guo, Scott L. Travers, Yong-Chao Su, Karen V. Olson, Aaron M. Bauer, L. Lee Grismer, Cameron D. Siler, Robert G. Moyle, Michael J. Andersen, Rafe M. Brown 2019. Parachute geckos free fall into synonymy: Gekko phylogeny, and a new subgeneric classification, inferred from thousands of ultraconserved elements. bioRxiv 717520 [preprint] - get paper here
  • Wood, P. L., Guo, X., Travers, S. L., Su, Y. C., Olson, K. V., Bauer, A. M., Grismer, L. L., Siler, C. D., Moyle, R. G., Andersen, M. J. and Brown, R. M. 2020. Parachute geckos free fall into synonymy: Gekko phylogeny, and a new subgeneric classification, inferred from thousands of ultraconserved elements. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 146: 106731 [corrigendum: MPE 164: 107255] - get paper here
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