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Glaucomastix cyanura (ARIAS, DE CARVALHO, RODRIGUES & ZAHER, 2011)

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesPortuguese: Calango 
SynonymCnemidophorus cyanurus ARIAS, DE CARVALHO, RODRIGUES & ZAHER 2011
Ameivula cyanura — HARVEY et al. 2012
Glaucomastix cyanura — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016
Glaucomastix cyanurus — ROSÁRIO et al. 2019 
DistributionBrazil (Bahia)

Type locality: Morro do Chapéu (11°33 ́10 ́ ́ S, 41°09 ́02 ́ ́ W), state of Bahia, Brazil, elevation 995 m  
Reproductionoviparous (manual imputation, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: MZUSP 65781, adult male collected by Miguel T. Rodrigues, on 16 September 1984. Paratypes. MZUSP 56115 to 56127, collected by Miguel T. Rodrigues on 30 November 1980; MZUSP 62801 to 62810, and MZUSP 65780, MZUSP 65782 to 65784, collected by Miguel T. Rodrigues from 16–18 September 1984; MZUSP 74179, MZUSP 74215 to 74222, collected by Miguel T. Rodrigues from 3–5 October 1990, all from Morro do Chapéu, state of Bahia, Brazil. MZUSP 56287, collected by Miguel T. Rodrigues on 3 December 1980 and MZUSP 72420 and 72421, collected by Miguel T. Rodrigues on 22 August 1988, from Santo Inácio (11 06’S, 42 43’ W), state of Bahia, Brazil, elevation 500–800 m. Male adults: MZUSP 56115, 56117, 56120, 56124, 56125, 56126, 56287, 62801, 62802, 62805, 62808, 62809, 62810, 65783, 65784, 72421, 74215, 74216, 74218, 74221 and 74222. Undetermined sex MZUSP 56127. Female adults: MZUSP 56116, 56118, 56119, 56121, 56122, 56123, 62803, 62804, 62806, 62807, 65780, 72420, 65782, 74179, 74217, 74219 and 74220. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A species of the Cnemidophorus ocellifer group with granules in the supraorbital semicircles, and no anal spurs in males. Cnemidophorus cyanurus differs from C. ocellifer, C. mumbuca, C. jalapensis, and C. con- fusionibus by having 31–38 (x= 34.5) femoral pores (a maximum of 20 in all other species); 8–10 longitudinal rows of ventral scales (6–8), 29–33(x= 30.4) transverse rows of ventrals (a maximum of 29 in all other species), 6– 7 superciliaries (always 5), 1–2 row of spurs in the heel in males (absent), one row of distinctive enlarged scales in the arm (2–4, never enlarged), no enlarged scales in temporal region posterior to third subocular (present), vertebral stripe present (absent), lateral spots absent (present), and bluish-green tail (brown tail). C. cyanurus differs from C. abaetensis by having 31–38 (x= 34.5) femoral pores (27–31, x= 24), 190–215 (x= 201.8) dorsal scales (210–240, x= 221.8), second supraocular totally separated from frontal by supraocular granules (second supraocular contacts frontal), four supraoculars (usually 3), stripe on the tail absent (present). Cnemidophorus cyanurus differs from C. littoralis by having 31–38 (x= 34.5) femoral pores (28–36, x= 32.6 in C. littoralis), 190–215 (x= 201.8) dorsal scales (168–191, x= 174.9), frontonasal never divided (35.6 % of individuals with a divided frontonasal, according to Rocha et al., 2000), second supraocular separated from frontal by supraocular granules (second supraocular con- tacts frontal), and tail stripe absent (present). Cnemidophorus cyanurus differs from C. venetacaudus by having 31–38 (x= 34.5) femoral pores (34–45, x= 38 in C. venetacaudus), 26–31 (x= 28.6) fourth toe lamellae (30–35, x= 33), vertebral and lateral stripes present (absent), and body color blue gray (brown). 
CommentCnemidophorus cyanurus, shares with the species of the ocellifer subgroup of C. littoralis (C. abaetensis, C. littoralis and C. venetacaudus), a bluish green tail, spurs on the heels of males, 6–7 supraciliaries, a high number of femoral pores (27–45), a row of enlarged scales in the dorsal part of the humerus, and 8 to 10 rows of ventral scales. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet, cyan, is a Latin adjective meaning ‘‘bluish,’’ and the Latin superlative suffix urus, means ‘‘tail’’ in allusion to the characteristic ‘‘bluish tail’’ in members of this species. 
  • ARIAS, FEDERICO; CELSO MORATO DE CARVALHO, MIGUEL TREFAUT RODRIGUES & HUSSAM ZAHER 2011. Two new species of Cnemidophorus (Squamata: Teiidae) of the C. ocellifer group, from Bahia, Brazil. Zootaxa 3022: 1–21
  • Goicoechea, N., Frost, D. R., De la Riva, I., Pellegrino, K. C. M., Sites, J., Rodrigues, M. T. and Padial, J. M. 2016. Molecular systematics of teioid lizards (Teioidea/Gymnophthalmoidea: Squamata) based on the analysis of 48 loci under tree-alignment and similarity-alignment. Cladistics, doi: 10.1111/cla.12150 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • HARVEY, MICHAEL B.; GABRIEL N. UGUETO & RONALD L. GUTBERLET, Jr. 2012. Review of Teiid Morphology with a Revised Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Teiidae (Lepidosauria: Squamata). Zootaxa 3459: 1–156 - get paper here
  • ROSÁRIO, IGOR RIOS DO; RODRIGO MARQUES LIMA DOS SANTOS, FEDERICO ARIAS, CARLOS FREDERICO DUARTE ROCHA, EDUARDO JOSÉ DOS REIS DIAS, CELSO MORATO DE CARVALHO, MIGUEL TREFAUT RODRIGUES 2019. Phylogeography of the endangered sand dune whiptail lizard Glaucomastix abaetensis (Dias, Rocha & Vrcibradic, 2002) with the description of a new species. Zootaxa 4624 (4): 451–477 - get paper here
  • Silva, Karen Pinto da; Thiago Silva Soares 2018. New records of Glaucomastix cyanura and Ameivula nigrigula (Arias, De Carvalho, Rodrigues & Zaher, 2011) (Squamata: Teiidae) in the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Herpetology Notes 11: 405-408 - get paper here
  • Uchôa LR, Delfim FR, Mesquita DO, Colli GR, Garda AA, Guedes TB 2022. Lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Caatinga, northeastern Brazil: Detailed and updated overview. Vertebrate Zoology 72: 599-659 - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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