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Gloydius intermedius (STRAUCH, 1868)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Central Asian pitviper
Russian: Средний щитомордник
Chinese: 中介蝮 
SynonymTrigonocephalus intermedius STRAUCH 1868: 295
Agkistrodon halys intermedius STRAUCH 1876
Halys intermedia — PETERS 1877: 735
Ancistrodon intermedius — BOULENGER 1890: 140
Ancistrodon intermedius — BOULENGER 1896: 525
Agkistrodon blomhoffi intermedius — STEJNEGER 1907: 464
Ancistrodon blomhoffi intermedius — DESPAX 1913: 181
Ancistrodon halys intermedius — EMELIANOV 1929: 130
Ancistrodon halys intermedius — RENDAHL 1933: 15
Ancistrodon saxatilis EMELIANOV 1937
Agkistrodon saxatilis GLOYD 1972: 569
Agkistrodon halys cognatus GLOYD 1977
Agkistrodon halys intermedius — HARDING & WELCH 1980
Agkistrodon shedaoensis continentalis ZHAO 1980: 12
Agkistrodon saxatilis — SCHNEEWEISS 1989
Agkistrodon intermedius saxatilis — WELCH 1994: 13
Agkistrodon intermedius intermedius — WELCH 1994: 11
Agkistrodon intermedius — ORLOV & BARABANOV 1999
Gloydius saxatilis — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 307
Gloydius intermedius — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 306
Gloydius intermedius — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004
Gloydius saxatilis — JIANG & ZHAO 2009
Gloydius intermedius — WALLACH et al. 2014: 311
Gloydius saxatilis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 311
Gloydius intermedius — DAVID & VOGEL 2015
Gloydius intermedius — WAGNER et al. 2015
Gloydius saxatilis — PARK et al 2022 
DistributionN China (incl. Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang),
E Russia, North Korea, South Korea

Type locality: Irkutsk, Eastern Siberia; Terra typica restricta (hoc loco). Malyi Hinggan Mountain Range (Xiao Hinggan Ling), Cape Tyr on the Amur River and Cape Kofel on the Ussuri River, Russian Far East Region.

saxatilis: NE China south to Shandong,
Russia (east of Selemdzha River in E Siberia, Primorskye Kray and Khabarovsk Kray, Far East), Korea; Type locality: Vladivostok River, Russia  
TypesLectotype. ZISP 2221. Prom. Tyr (Amur). Leg.: Schrenck, 1855 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Total length up to 800 mm and more. Dorsal scales in 23 (rarely 21) rows at midbody. Supralabials 7 – 8; ventrals 148 – 175; subcaudals 34–52.

Diagnosis. A large viper of the genus, up to at least 800 mm total length. Supralabial scales 7-8. Dorsal scales in 23, very rarely 21, rows around midbody; ventral scales between 148- 175; subcaudal scales paired, between 34-52. Body with 28-45 dark transverse bands, each 3- 6 scales wide and extending down to scale row 2 or 1 [WAGNER et al. 2015]. 

Synonymy partly after KHALIKOV & ANANJEVA (pers. comm.). G. saxatilis is not recognized by GUMPRECHT et al. 2004. ORLOV & BARABANOV 1999 synonymized G. saxatilis with G. intermedius. See Jiang & Zhao 2009 for comparisons of G. saxatilis, shedaoensis, and their new species lijianlii (which has been synonymized with G. changdaoensis).

Distribution: see map in ORLOV & BARABANOV 1999.

NCBI taxonID: 92067 [saxatilis] 
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  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. A list of the reptiles and batrachians of Amoorland [Russia]. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 5: 137-144 - get paper here
  • Chen, Y.; Zhang, D.; Jiang, K. & Wang, Z. 1992. Evaluation of Snake Venoms among Agkistrodon Species in China. Asiatic Herpetological Research 4: 58-61 - get paper here
  • David, P. & Vogel, G. 2015. An updated list of Asian pitvipers and a selection of recent publications, in: Visser: Asian Pitvipers. Breeding Experience & Wildlife. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, 571pp. ISBN 978-3-89973-450-8 - get paper here
  • Despax, RAYMOND 1913. Sur une collection de reptiles et de batraciens rassemblée par M. le Dr. Legendre dans les marches Thibétaines. Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, [ser. 1], 19 (4): 179-183 - get paper here
  • Do, Min Seock; Ki-Baek Nam 2021. Distribution Patterns and Ecological Niches of the Red-tongued Pit Viper (Gloydius ussuriensis) and the Central Asian Pit Viper (Gloydius intermedius) in Cheonmasan Mountain, South Korea. Russian Journal of Herpetology 28 (6): 348-354
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  • Emelianov, A.A. 1929. Snakes of the Far Eastern District [In Russian]. Mem. Vladivostok Sect. Russian State Geogr. Soc. 3 (20): 1-208
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  • Jiang & Zhao 2009. Gloydius lijianlii, a new species from the northern coastal islands along Shandong peninsula (Reptilia, Squamata, Viperidae). [in Chinese]. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica, 34(3): 642-646
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  • Koo, Kyo Soung 2019. First Report on the Hybridization between Gloydius brevicaudus and G. intermedius. Herpetology Notes 12: - get paper here
  • Li, J.L. 1999. Infraspecific classification of two species of Gloydius (Serpentes: Crotalinae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 24(4), Oct 1999:454-460
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