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Gonocephalus bornensis (SCHLEGEL, 1851)

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Draconinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Borneo Forest Dragon 
SynonymLophyrus bornensis [sic] SCHLEGEL 1851: 6
Tiaris miotympanum GÜNTHER 1872
Gonyocephalus miotympanum — BOULENGER 1885: 287
Gonyocephalus borneensis — BOULENGER 1885: 288
Gonocephalus borneensis — SMITH 1931: 10, 31
Goniocephalus borneensis — TAYLOR 1963: 877
Goniocephalus borneensis — GRANDISON 1972: 76
Gonyocephalus miotympanum — BOULENGER 1885
Gonyocephalus miotympanum — DE ROOIJ 1915: 106
Gonyocephalus borneensis — DE ROOIJ 1915: 106
Gonocephalus miotympanum — MANTHEY 1983
Goniocephalus borneensis — BONG HEANG 1987
Gonocephalus denzeri MANTHEY 1991 (fide MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997)
Gonocephalus borneensis — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 179
Gonocephalus borneensis — MANTHEY & SCHUSTER 1999: 61
Gonocephalus bornensis [sic] — MALKMUS et al. 2002: 241
Gonocephalus bornensis [sic] — DENZER & MANTHEY 2009
Gonocephalus bornensis — MANTHEY 2010 
DistributionIndonesia (Borneo), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak)
Thailand (reported only once near the border of Surat Thani and Nakhon Si Thammarat [fide TAYLOR 1963])

Type locality: Borneo  
TypesSyntypes: RMNH 3043 & 3044, two females
Hiolotype: BMNH 1946.8.19.82 [miotympanum]
Holotype: ZFMK 50527 [Gonocephalus denzeri] 
DiagnosisDescription: Snout longer than the diameter of the orbit; canthus rostralis sharp; supraciliary borders normally raised; tympanum distinct, nearly half the diameter of the eye-opening. Head-scales small, keeled, those on the supraorbital region larger and strongly keeled; on the forehead a series of larger scales Y-shaped; above and below the ear some enlarged tubercles; nine to twelve upper and lower labials. A gular sac, without serrated anterior edge, covered with obtusely keeled, small scales. Body compressed; nuchal and dorsal crests continuous, beginning at the posterior border of the occiput; the nuchal and anterior dorsal part formed of long, narrow scales, covered at the base with smaller, sharply pointed and keeled scales, its greatest height, at the nape, equals the length of the snout. Dorsal scales very small, keeled, with a few enlarged ones here and there; ventral scales much larger, keeled. Tail compressed, a serrated edge above, covered with keeled scales, those below larger and strongly keeled; its length about twice the length of head and body. Limbs long and slender, the hind limb nearly reaches the tip of the snout; scales of limbs slightly unequal and keeled; third and fourth fingers almost equal (de Rooij 1915: 106).

Coloration: Light brown above, reticulated with dark brown, and with dark transverse bands on the back and limbs, the large scales whitish; the light brown colour slightly tinged with bluish; dark lines radiating from the eye; a light black-edged transverse band at the supraorbital region; gular sac in males bluish, with an orange streak on each side; gular fold black; tail with broad dark and narrow light annuli. Lower parts yellowish; throat with dark brown longitudinal lines (de Rooij 1915: 106).

Size: Length of head and body 130 mm.; tail 275 mm (de Rooij 1915: 106).

See separate description for miotympanum in de Rooij 1915: 106. 
CommentIllustration in BARTS & WILMS 2003.

Synonymy: Listed as a synonym of G. bellii by WERMUTH 1967. 
EtymologyNamed after its distribution on Borneo (Indonesia). 
  • Ahmad, Norhayati; Eddie Ahmad, Mahathir Ratag, Edward Asrul Alimin Sinon, Brandon Don, Francer Francis, Muhammad Ridzuan Mahmod, Amshari Agimin, Daicus Belabut 2019. Amphibians and Reptiles of Imbak Canyon Study Centre and Batu Timbang Camp. Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation 16: 25–33
  • Barts, M. & Wilms, T. 2003. Die Agamen der Welt. Draco 4 (14): 4-23 - get paper here
  • Bong Heang, Kiew 1987. An annotated checklist of the herpetofauna of Ulu Endau, Johore, Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 41 (2-3): 413-423.
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • Das , I. 2004. Lizards of Borneo. Natural History Publications, Kota Kinabalu, Borneo
  • Das, I. 1993. Jour. Sarawak Mus., 44 (65): 128
  • Das, I. & Yaakob, N. 2007. Status of knowledge of the Malaysian herpetofauna. In Status of biological diversity in Malaysia & threat assessment of plant species in Malaysia. in: L. S. L. Chua, L. G. Kirton & L. G. Saw (eds.), Status of biological diversity in Malaysia & threat assessment of plant species in Malaysia. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kepong, pp. 31-81
  • de Rooij, N. de 1915. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. I. Lacertilia, Chelonia, Emydosauria. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 384 pp. - get paper here
  • Denzer, W. & Manthey, U. 2009. Remarks on the type specimen of Gonocephalus mjobergi Smith, 1925 (Sauria: Agamidae). Bonner zoologische Beiträge 56 (4): 255–258 - get paper here
  • Fukuyama, I; Nishikawa, K; Takata, K; Shimada, T & Hamidy, A 2019. Gonocephalus bornensis (Borneo Anglehead Lizard) Reproduction. Herpetological Review 50 (3): 575-576 - get paper here
  • Grandison, A.G.C. 1972. The Gunong Benom Expedition 1967. 5. Reptiles and amphibians of Gunong Benom with a description of a new species of Macrocalamus. Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), London, 23: 45-101. - get paper here
  • Malkmus, R.; Manthey, U.; Vogel, G. Hoffmann, P. & Kosuch, J. 2002. Amphibians and reptiles of Mount Kinabalu (North Borneo). A.R.G. Ganther Verlag, Rugell, 404 pp.
  • Malkmus, Rudolf 2015. Die Amphibien des Nationalparks Gunung Mulu auf Borneo. Terraria-Elaphe 2015 (2): 32-43 - get paper here
  • Manthey U 1991. Gonocephalus denzeri sp. n. (Sauria: Agamidae) aus Sarawak, Borneo. Salamandra 27 (3) 1991: 152-157 - get paper here
  • Manthey U 2010. Agamid Lizards of Southern Asia. Draconinae 2 -Leiolepidinae. Edition Chimaira, Terralog 7b, Frankfurt, 168 pp.
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • Manthey,U. 1983. Exkursion am Mt. Kinabalu (4101 m), Nordborneo, Teil 3: Checkliste der Herpetofauna oberhalb 600 m ü. NN. Herpetofauna 5 (23): 20-31 - get paper here
  • Manthey,U. & SCHUSTER,N. 1999. Agamen, 2. Aufl. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 120 pp. - get paper here
  • Schlegel,H. 1851. Descriptions de plusieurs expèces nouvelles du genre Lophyrus. Bijdr. Dierk. (Amsterdam) 3 (1): 4-6 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1931. The herpetology of Mt. Kinabalu, North Borneo, 13455 ft. Bull. Raffles Mus. 5: 3-32.
  • Taylor, E.H. 1963. The lizards of Thailand. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 44: 687-1077. - get paper here
  • Welton, Luke J.;Cameron D. Siler, L. L. Grismer, Arvin C. Diesmos, Jack W. Sites andRafe M. Brown 2016. Archipelago-wide survey of Philippine forest dragons (Agamidae: Gonocephalus): multilocus phylogeny uncovers unprecedented levels of genetic diversity in a biodiversity hotspot. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, DOI: 10.1111/bij.12878 - get paper here
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