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Graptemys oculifera (BAUR, 1890)

IUCN Red List - Graptemys oculifera - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaEmydidae, Deirochelyinae, Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles)
Common NamesE: Ringed Map Turtle
G: Pracht-Höckerschildkröte 
SynonymMalacoclemmys oculifera BAUR 1890: 262
Graptemys oculifera — BAUR 1893
Graptemys pseudogeographica oculifera — STEJNEGER & BARBOUR 1933
Graptemys oculifera oculifera— MERTENS & WERMUTH 1955
Graptemys oculifera — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 61
Graptemys oculifera — CROTHER 2000
Graptemys oculifera — RHODIN et al. 2010
Graptemys oculifera — TTWG 2021 
DistributionUSA (Mississippi, Louisiana: Pearl River system)

Type locality: “Mandeville, La.,” restricted to “the Pearl River, 26 miles east of Mandeville, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana” by Cagle (1953b:138).  
TypesSyntypes: MCZ 6430, USNM 15508 (alcoholic female, CL 203 mm); USNM 15509 (alcoholic female, CL 181 mm); USNM 15510 (adult female, skeleton, CL 206 mm, see “Reynolds et al. 2007); USNM 15511 (alcoholic female, CL 167 mm); all from Mandeville, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, collected by Gustave Kohn, Jun 1889.
CommentGraptemys oculifera flavimaculata CAGLE 1954 has been raised to full species status. However, G. flavimaculata is very closely related to F. oculifera, with G. flavimaculata having more yellow pigmentation than G. oculifera.

Diet: carnivore.

Habitat: freshwater (lakes, rivers) 
EtymologyThe name oculifera is from the Latin oculus, eye, and the Greek phero, to bear; refers to the well-developed ocellated pattern on the pleural scutes. 
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  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598 - get paper here
  • Cagle, Fred R. 1953. The status of the turtle Graptemys oculifera (Baur). Zoologica 38 (3): 137-144 - get paper here
  • Cagle, Fred R. 1954. Two new species of the genus Graptemys. Tulane Studies in Zoology 1 (11): 165-186 - get paper here
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Ennen, Joshua R.; Brian R. Kreiser, Carl P. Qualls, and Jeffrey E. Lovich 2010. Morphological and Molecular Reassessment of Graptemys oculifera and Graptemys flavimaculata (Testudines: Emydidae). Journal of Herpetology 44 (4): 544–554 - get paper here
  • Ennen, Joshua R.; Jeffrey E. Lovich, Brian R. Kreiser, W. Selman, Carl P. Qualls 2010. Genetic and Morphological Variation Between Populations of the Pascagoula Map Turtle (Graptemys gibbonsi) in the Pearl and Pascagoula Rivers with Description of a New Species. Chelonian Conservation and Biology. 9 (1): 98–113 - get paper here
  • Ernst, Carl H.; Lovich, Jeffrey E. 2009. Turtles of the United States and Canada, 2nd edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, 827 pp. - get paper here
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Gaillard, Daniel L., Will Selman, Robert L. Jones, Brian R. Kreiser, Carl P. Qualls and Keri Landry. 2015. High Connectivity Observed in Populations of Ringed Sawbacks, Graptemys oculifera, in the Pearl and Bogue Chitto Rivers Using Six Microsatellite Loci. Copeia 103 (4): 1075-1085 - get paper here
  • Hertwig, S. 2001. Ökologie, Haltung, und Fortpflanzung im Terrarium von Graptemys caglei, G. flavimaculata, G. nigrinoda nigrinoda und G. oculifera. Salamandra 37 (1): 21-48 - get paper here
  • Jones, R.L. & P.D. Hartfield 1995. Population Size and Growth in the Turtle Graptemys oculifera Journal of Herpetology 29 (3): 426-436. - get paper here
  • Jones, R.L. and WiLL Selman 2009. Graptemys oculifera (Baur 1890) – Ringed Map Turtle, Ringed Sawback. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5: 1-8 - get paper here
  • Jones, Robert L. 2017. Long-Term Trends in Ringed Sawback (Graptemys oculifera) Growth, Survivorship, Sex Ratios, and Population Sizes in the Pearl River, Mississippi. Chelonian Conservation and Biology Dec 2017, Vol. 16, No. 2: 215-228. - get paper here
  • Kirkpatrick, David 1993. Map turtles of the United States. Reptile & Amphibian magazine (November/December): 7-17
  • Lechowicz, Christopher. 2008. Tour d'horizon de l'histoire naturelle, la taxonomie, la préservation et les problémes actuels des tortues géographiques du genre Graptemys (Agassiz, 1857). Chéloniens 11:30-45
  • Lindeman, Peter V. 2014. Geographic Distribution: Graptemys oculifera (ringed map turtle). Herpetological Review 45 (2): 280 - get paper here
  • McCoy C J; Vogt R C 1988. Graptemys oculifera (Baur). Ringed sawback. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 422: 1-2 - get paper here
  • McCoy, C. J.; Oscar A. Flores-Villela, Richard C. Vogt, Michael Pappas & J. Kelly McCoy 2020. Ecology of Riverine Turtle Communities in the Southern United States: Food Resource Use and Trophic Niche Dimensions Chelonian Conservation and Biology 19 (2): 197-208 - get paper here
  • Praschag P, Ihlow F, Flecks M, Vamberger M, Fritz U. 2017. Diversity of North American map and sawback turtles (Testudines: Emydidae: Graptemys). Zoologica Scripta 46: 675– 682 - get paper here
  • Praschag, Reiner 2023. Sechs Jahrzehnte Erfahrungen mit der Haltung und Nachzucht von Höcker- und Sägerückenschildkröten der Gattung Graptemys<br />Reiner Praschag Elaphe 2023 (5): 38-52
  • Praschag, Reiner 2023. Sägerücken- und Höckerschildkröten der Gattung Graptemys – eine artenreiche Gattung der Sumpfschildkröten Elaphe 2023 (5): 12-23
  • Reynolds, Robert P.; Steve W. Gotte, and Carl H. Ernst 2007. Catalog of Type Specimens of Recent Crocodilia and Testudines in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 626: 1-49 - get paper here
  • Roddewig, Ewald 2013. Graptemys oculifera: Biologie, Haltung und Nachzucht der Pracht-Höckerschildkröten Teil 1: Biologie, Gefährdung und erste Haltungserfahrungen. Terraria-Elaphe 2013 (4): 22-28 - get paper here
  • Roddewig, Ewald 2013. Graptemys oculifera: Biologie, Haltung und Nachzucht der Pracht-Höckerschildkröte. Teil 2: Haltung, Überwinterung, Nachzucht, Aufzucht. Terraria-Elaphe 2013 (5): 58-68 - get paper here
  • Seidel, Michael E. & Carl H. Ernst 2017. A Systematic Review of the Turtle Family Emydidae. Vertebrate Zoology 67 (1): 1–122 - get paper here
  • Selman, W; 2019. Graptemys oculifera (Ringed Sawback) Abnormal carapace scutellation. Herpetological Review 50 (2): 354 - get paper here
  • Selman, Will and Robert L. Jones 2012. Growth in Kyphotic Ringed Sawbacks, Graptemys oculifera (Testudines: Emydidae). Chelonian Conservation and Biology Dec 2012, Vol. 11, No. 2: 259-261. - get paper here
  • Selman, Will and Robert L. Jones 2017. Population Structure, Status, and Conservation of Two Graptemys Species from the Pearl River, Mississippi. Journal of Herpetology 51 (1): 27–36 - get paper here
  • Selman, Will S 2020. River Turtles and One Dam Lake: Two Imperiled Graptemys Species in the Pearl River and Potential Impacts of the Proposed One Lake Project Chelonian Conservation and Biology 19 (2): 186-196 - get paper here
  • SELMAN, WILL. 2022. GRAPTEMYS OCULIFERA (Ringed Sawback). SHELL DEFACEMENT. Herpetological Review 53(1): 121.
  • SELMAN, WILL. 2022. GRAPTEMYS OCULIFERA (Ringed Sawback). ABERRANT SCUTE PATTERNING. Herpetological Review 53(1): 119–120.
  • Stephens, P.R. & Wiens, J.J. 2003. Ecological diversification and phylogeny of emydid turtles. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 79: 577-610 - get paper here
  • TTWG; Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., Bour, R., Fritz, U., Georges, A., Shaffer, H.B., and van Dijk, P.P. 2021. Turtles of the World: Annotated Checklist and Atlas of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status (9th Ed.). In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., van Dijk, P.P., Stanford, C.B., Goode, E.V., Buhlmann, K.A., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Chelonian Research Monographs 8:1–472. doi:10.3854/crm.8.checklist.atlas.v9.2021. - get paper here
  • TTWG; Rhodin, A.G.J.; van Dijk, P.P.; Iverson, J.B. & Shaffer, H.B. [turtle taxonomy working group] 2010. Turtles of the World, 2010 Update: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v3.2010 - get paper here
  • Wilson, D.S. et al. 2003. Estimating age of turtles from growth rings: a critical evaluation of the technique. Herpetologica 59 (2): 178-194 - get paper here
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