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Gymnophthalmus cryptus HOOGMOED, COLE & AYARZAGUENA, 1992

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Gymnophthalminae), Gymnophthalmini, Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Cryptic Spectacled Tegu 
SynonymGymnophthalmus cryptus HOOGMOED, COLE & AYARZAGUENA 1992
Gymnophthalmus cryptus — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999 
DistributionVenezuela (Territorio Federal Amazonas)

Type locality: Venezuela: Territorio Federal Amazonas, Departamento Atabapo, Canaripo, riverine forest 1.5 km SE of camp, 91 m elevation. This locality is along the Rio Ventuari, approximately 33 km ENE (upriver) from Santa Barbara, which is on the Rio Orinoco W (downriver) of the confluence with the Rio Ventuari.  
TypesSyntypes: RMNH 22166 (field number 2249; one of 10 specimens), adult female, 30.V.1978,11:45 - 12:30 hrs, leg. M.S. Hoogmoed and J. Cerda. Paratypes.— RMNH 22155-22165, 5 females, 6 males, Canaripo, 29.V.1978, 15:00 - 16:00 hrs,leg. M.S. Hoogmoed. RMNH 22167-22175, 6 males, 3 females, same data as the holotype. RMNH 22176-22188, 7 males, 6 females, Canaripo, E of camp, 31.V.1978,11:00 -14:00 hrs, leg. M.S. Hoogmoed and J. Cerda. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: This species differs from all other known species of Gymnophthalmus by the following combination of characters: colour of unregenerated tail in life blue; dorsal body brown with pale yellow dorsolateral stripe either fading near midbody or continuing to waist; sides very dark brown or black; dorsal scales of body and base of unregenerated tail all smooth; frontal usually separated from internasals by median contact of prefrontals (79.4% of specimens); one supraocular on each side; usually eight supralabials on each side, five to the posterior edge of the eye; usually four infralabials on each side counted to the posterior edge of the eye; two pairs of enlarged chinshields; 8 to 10 gulars; ventrals in males 20 to 22, in females 21 to 24; dorsals in males 30 to 32, in females 32 to 34; usually 15 scales around midbody (five of which are dorsals, four of which are ventrals, and three on each side); and four or fewer very inconspicuous femoral pores on each side in adult males (pores absent in females) (from HOOGMOED et al. 1992). 
EtymologyThe Latin adjective cryptus is derived from the Greek kryptos, which means secret or hidden. 
  • Cole C J. DESSAUER H C. MARKEZICH A L. 1993. Missing Link Found: The Second Ancestor of Gymnophthalmus underwoodi (Squamata: Teiidae), A South American Unisexual Lizard of Hybrid Origin. American Museum Novitates (3055): 1-13. - get paper here
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • Hoogmoed M S. COLE C J. AYARZAGUENA J. 1992. A NEW CRYPTIC SPECIES OF LIZARD SAURIA TEIIDAE GYMNOPHTHALMUS FROM VENEZUELA. Zoologische Mededelingen 66 (1-15): 1-18. - get paper here
  • Kizirian, D. A. & Cole, C.J. 1999. Origin of the Unisexual Lizard Gymnophthalmus underwoodi (Gymnophthalmidae) Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA Nucleotide Sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 11 (3): 394–400 - get paper here
  • RECODER, RENATO SOUSA; FRANCISCO DAL VECHIO, SERGIO MARQUES-SOUZA, MAURO JR. TEIXEIRA, MAIUME SILVA-DA-SILVA, ALFREDO P. SANTOS-JR., SÍRIA RIBEIRO, CESAR BARRIO-AMORÓS, MIGUEL TREFAUT RODRIGUES 2018. Geographic variation and taxonomy of red-tailed Gymnophthalmus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from Amazonian Savannas. Zootaxa 4497 (1): 061–081 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
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