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Gymnophthalmus lineatus (LINNAEUS, 1758)

IUCN Red List - Gymnophthalmus lineatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Gymnophthalminae), Gymnophthalmini, Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesG: Blauschwänziges Nacktauge 
SynonymLacerta lineata LINNAEUS 1758: 209
Lacerta quadrilineata LINNAEUS 1766: 371
Lacerta quadrilineata — MEYER 1795: 30
Gymnophthalmus quadrilineatus — WIED 1824
Gymnophthalmus quadrilineatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 820
Gymnophthalmus quadrilineatus — GRAVENHORST 1851: 354
Gymnophthalmus nitidus REINHARDT & LÜTKEN 1863
Gymnophthalmus merremi BOULENGER 1885: 427
Gymnophthalmus lineatus — ANDERSSON 1900: 16
Gymnophthalmus lineatus — PETERS et al. 1970: 137
Gymnophthalmus lineatus — RODRIGUES 1991
Gymnophthalmus lineatus — MACIEL et al. 2021 
DistributionVenezuela (Las Aves Archipelago), Suriname, Dutch Leeward Islands.

Type locality: “Zeilona”  
TypesHolotype: NRM
Holotype: ZMUC [nitidus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Gymnophthalmus can be easily distinguished from other microteiids by lacking moveable eyelids, a body covered with imbricate scincoid scales, first finger reduced, presence of prefrontals, one supraocular, two mentals in contact, and absence of frontoparietals (Rodrigues 1991). 
CommentDistribution: Erroneously reported from Brazil. For a map see Maciel et al. 2021: 292 (Fig. 1).

Synonymy that of PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970

Type species: Lacerta lineata LINNAEUS 1758 is the type species of the genus Gymnophthalmus MERREM 1820. For a definition of the genus (in Portuguese) see RODRIGUES 1991: 334.

Type genus: Gymnophthalmus MERREM 1820 is also the type genus of the family Gymnophthalmidae Fitzinger, 1826 and the superfamily Gymnophthalmoidea Fitzinger, 1826 (see GOICOECHEA et al. 2016).

Tribus: The Gymnophthalmini Fitzinger, 1826 (not Merrem 1820 fide Costa et al. 2016) include the genera Calyptommatus, Gymnophthalmus, Micrablepharus, Nothobachia, Procellosaurinus, Psilophthalmus, Scriptosaura, Tretioscincus, Vanzosaura (following Colli et al. 2015).

Phylogenty: Vásquez-Restrepo & Diago-Toro 2023 present a phylogeny of the genera (and species) of 192 species of Gymnophthalmidae, 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “linea”, meaning stripe or line. 
  • Andersson, L.G. 1900. Catalogue of Linnean type-specimens of Linnaeus's Reptilia in the Royal Museum in Stockholm. [type catalogue] Bihang till Konglika Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens. Handlingar. Stockholm. (4) 26 (1): 1-29. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • COLLI, GUARINO R.; MARINUS S. HOOGMOED, DAVID C. CANNATELLA, JOSÉ CASSIMIRO, JERRIANE OLIVEIRA GOMES, JOSÉ MÁRIO GHELLERE, PEDRO M. SALES-NUNES, KÁTIA C. M. PELLEGRINO, PATRICIA SALERNO, SERGIO MARQUES DE SOUZA & MIGUEL TREFAUT RODRIGUES 2015. Description and phylogenetic relationships of a new genus and two new species of lizards from Brazilian Amazonia, with nomenclatural comments on the taxonomy of Gymnophthalmidae (Reptilia: Squamata). Zootaxa 4000 (4): 401–427 - get paper here
  • COSTA, HENRIQUE C.; PAULO C.A. GARCIA & HUSSAM ZAHER 2016. The correct authorship and date of lizard names Teiinae, Tupinambinae, and Gymnophthalmidae. Zootaxa 4132 (2): 295–300 - get paper here
  • Cunha, O.R. da 1961. Lacertilios da Amazonia, II. Os lagartos da Amazonia brasileira, com especial referencia aos representados na colecao do Museu Goeldi. Bol. Mus. Par. E. Goeldi, Zool. 39: 1-189
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol. 5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • Goicoechea, N., Frost, D. R., De la Riva, I., Pellegrino, K. C. M., Sites, J., Rodrigues, M. T. and Padial, J. M. 2016. Molecular systematics of teioid lizards (Teioidea/Gymnophthalmoidea: Squamata) based on the analysis of 48 loci under tree-alignment and similarity-alignment. Cladistics, doi: 10.1111/cla.12150 - get paper here
  • Gravenhorst, J. L. C. 1851. Über die im Zoologischen Museum der Universität Breslau Befindlichen Wirtelschleichen (Pseudosaura), Krüppelfüssler (Brachypoda), und einige andere, Denselben verwandte Reptilien aus den Zünften der Schleichen und Dickzüngler [Euprepes striolatus]. Acta Acad. Caes. Leop. Carol. Nat. Cur. 23 (1): 291-394 [1847] - get paper here
  • Hedges SB, Powell R, Henderson RW, Hanson S, and Murphy JC 2019. Definition of the Caribbean Islands biogeographic region, with checklist and recommendations for standardized common names of amphibians and reptiles. Caribbean Herpetology 67: 1–53
  • Hummelinck, P. W. 1940. Studies on the fauna of Curacao, Aruba, Bonaire and the Venezuelan Islands: No. 2. A survey of the mammals, lizards and mollusks. ['Gymnophthalmus laevicaudus: 80]. Studies on the Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands. 1:59—108
  • Linnaeus, C. [= Linné, C. von] 1758. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiæ. 10th Edition: 824 pp. - get paper here
  • Linné, C. von [= Linnaeus, C.] 1766. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio duodecima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm, Holmiae. 1-532 pp. - get paper here
  • Meyer, F.A.A. 1795. Synopsis Reptilium, novam ipsorum sistens generum methodum, nec non Gottingensium huius ordinis animalium enumerationem. Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, Göttingen, 32 pp [for current names see Rösler & Böhme 2021] - get paper here
  • RECODER, RENATO SOUSA; FRANCISCO DAL VECHIO, SERGIO MARQUES-SOUZA, MAURO JR. TEIXEIRA, MAIUME SILVA-DA-SILVA, ALFREDO P. SANTOS-JR., SÍRIA RIBEIRO, CESAR BARRIO-AMORÓS, MIGUEL TREFAUT RODRIGUES 2018. Geographic variation and taxonomy of red-tailed Gymnophthalmus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from Amazonian Savannas. Zootaxa 4497 (1): 061–081 - get paper here
  • Rodrigues, M. T. 1991. Herpetofauna das dunas interiores do Rio Sào Francisco, Bahia, Brazil. III. Procellosaurinus: um novo genero de microteiideos sem palpebra, com a redefinicao do genero Gymnophthalmus (Sauria, Teiidae). Papéis Avulsos Zoology (Sao Paulo) 37 (21): 329-342 - get paper here
  • Rösler, Herbert & Wolfgang Böhme 2021. Das Leben von Friedrich Albrecht Anton Meyer (1768 – 1795) und die Herpetologie in seinen Schriften, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der „Synopsis Reptilium“. Sekretär 21: 83-129
  • Thireau, Michel;Sprackland, Robert George; Sprackland, Teri 1998. A report on Seba's specimens in the herpetological collection of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, and their status as Linnaean types. The Linnean 13 (4): 38-45 - get paper here
  • Ugueto, G.N.; P. Velozo; L.E. Sanchez; L.A.B. Villapol; O. Lasso-Alcalá; T.R. Barros; G.A. Rivas 2013. Noteworthy new records of squamate reptiles (Reptilia: Squamata) from various Venezuelan Caribbean islands, including a new addition to the herpetofauna of Venezuela. Check List 9 (5): 1075-1080 - get paper here
  • Vásquez-Restrepo, Juan D; María F Diago-Toro 2023. Alice in Lizardland: exploring the spatiotemporal speciation and morphological evolutionary rates in the highly diverse microteiid lizards (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2023;, blad127, - get paper here
  • Wied-Neuwied, M. 1824. Verzeichniss der Amphibien, welche im zweyten Bande der Naturgeschichte Brasiliens vom Prinz Max von Neuwied werden beschrieben werden. Isis von Oken 14: 661—673 [columns] - get paper here
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