You are here » home advanced search Gymnophthalmus speciosus

Gymnophthalmus speciosus (HALLOWELL, 1861)

Can you confirm these amateur observations of Gymnophthalmus speciosus?

Add your own observation of
Gymnophthalmus speciosus »

Find more photos by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Gymnophthalminae), Gymnophthalmini, Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesGymnophthalmus speciosus speciosus (HALLOWELL 1861)
Gymnophthalmus speciosus birdi STUART 1939
Gymnophthalmus speciosus sumichrasti (COPE 1875) 
Common NamesE: Golden Tegulet, Golden Spectacled Tegu
S: Lagartija dorada, lisita coliroja 
SynonymBlepharictisis speciosa HALLOWELL 1861: 484
Tretioscincus laevicaudus COPE 1869 (fide PETERS et al. 1970: 138)
Gymnophthalmus speciosus — STUART 1939: 4
Gymnophthalmus laevicaudus — HUMMELINCK 1940: 86
Gymnophthalmus speciosus speciosus — MERTENS 1952: 56
Gymnopthalmus speciosus — NEMURAS 1967: 33 (in error)
Gymnophthalmus speciosus — PETERS et al. 1970: 138
Gymnophthalmus speciosus — PRESCH 1978
Gymnophthalmus speciosus — HARDY et al. 1989: 215
Gymnophthalmus speciosus — LINER 1994
Gymnophthalmus speciosus — MATA-SILVA et al. 2015
Gymnophthalmus cf. speciosus — GARCÍA-PÉREZ & SCHARGEL 2017
Gymnophthalmus aff. speciosus — SEÑARIS et al. 2018

Gymnophthalmus speciosus birdi STUART 1939
Gymnophthalmus birdi STUART 1939
Gymnophthalmus speciosus birdi — MERTENS 1952: 56
Gymnophthalmus speciosus birdi — PETERS et al. 1970: 138
Gymnophthalmus speciosus birdi — MCCOY 1990

Gymnophthalmus speciosus sumichrasti COPE 1875
Epaphelus sumichrasti COPE 1875: 115
Epaphelus sumichrasti — COPE 1879: 270
Gymnophthalmus sumichrasti — GÜNTHER 1885: 29
Gymnophthalmus speciosus sumichrasti — STUART 1939
Gymnophthalmus sumichrasti — SMITH & LANGEBARTEL 1949: 410
Gymnophthalmus sumichrasti — ÁLVAREZ DEL TORO & SMITH 1956
Gymnophthalmus speciosus sumichrasti — STUART 1963
Gymnophthalmus speciosus sumichrasti — PETERS et al. 1970: 138 
DistributionS Mexico (Chiapas, Oaxaca), W Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela (Carabobo, Zulia etc.), Guyana,
Colombia (North Coast of Colombia; Magdalena and Cauca Valley Rivers, Valle del Cauca), Margarita I, Chacachacare Island, Aruba island (fide Hummelinck 1940)

Type locality: Nicaragua

birdi: Guatemala; Type locality: Guatemala, Baja Verapaz, Salamá Basin, 2 km S San Gerónimo.  
Reproductionoviparous; bisexual species (in contrast to G. underwoodi). 
TypesSyntype: MCZ R-5788
Holotype: UMMZ 84057 [birdi]
Holotype: USNM 30245-46; collected by F.E. Sumichrast. [sumichrasti] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION; These small, slender lizards are superficially skinklike in general appearance. The adults are about 40 mm in snout-vent length, and the undamaged tail is very long, nearly twice the length of the head and body. The only known specimen from the Yucatan Peninsula measures 43.5 mm in snout-vent length (McCoy, 1990:165). The scales on both the dorsum and the venter are large, highly polished, and imbricate, and the lateral scales are slightly smaller. The head is covered with a series of enlarged, smooth, symmetrically arranged plates. The limbs are rather small and weak, and they terminate in tiny claws. The eyes are small and covered by a transparent spectacle, and the pupils are round.
The dorsum, including the dorsal surface of the head, is generally tan, brown, or gray, often contrasting sharply with the darker sides. The venter ranges from light to dark gray; often each ventral scale is suffused with dark pigment. The tail, especially in younger individuals, is reddish orange and contrasts with the darker body. The chin is cream, yellow, or tan, often with dark spots (from Lee 1996: 251).

Characters (laevicaudus). 13 longitudinal scale-rows across abdomen; 33-35 transversal scale-rows between occiput and vent; nasal entire, with a faint indication of a lower suture, or not entire; about 6 femoral pores on each side; 1 yellowish-white longitudinal band on each side anteriorly, On the continent possibly not clearly separated from G. lineatus (cf. Ruthven) (Hummelinck 1940: 86). 
CommentDistribution: Chacachacare Island is off Trinidad. This species apparently has not been found on Trinidad itself.

Similar species (in the Yucatan Peninsula): No other lizard in the Yucatan Peninsula has only four digits on the hand. Gymnophthalmus speciosus superficially resembles Sphenomorphus cherriei but differs in having a transparent spectacle covering the eye. 
EtymologyThe name speciosus is Latin meaning ‘‘showy, splendid.’’ Hallowell (1861) gave no indication to what his name referred, but it probably refers to the handsome dorsal body and tail coloration (McCranie 2018: 377). 
References
  • Aguilar-López JL, Luría-Manzano R, Pineda E, Canseco-Márquez L 2021. Selva Zoque, Mexico: an important Mesoamerican tropical region for reptile species diversity and conservation. ZooKeys 1054: 127-153 - get paper here
  • Alvarez DEL TORO, M. 1982. Los Reptiles de Chiapas. 3rd ed. México: Tuxtla Gutiérrez, 248 pp.
  • Álvarez DEL TORO, M., & SMITH, H. M. 1956. Notulae herpetologicae Chiapasiae. I. Herpetologica 12: 3-17 - get paper here
  • Casas-Andreu, G., F.R. Méndez-De la Cruz and X. Aguilar-Miguel. 2004. Anfibios y Reptiles; pp. 375–390, in A.J.M. García-Mendoza, J. Ordoñez and M. Briones-Salas (ed.). Biodiversidad de Oaxaca. Instituto de Biología, UNAM-Fondo Oaxaqueño para la Conservación de la Naturaleza-World Wildlife Fund, México, D. F.
  • Castro-Herrera, F. & Vargas-Salinas, F. 2008. Anfibios y reptiles en el departamento del Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Biota Colombiana 9 (2): 251 - 277 - get paper here
  • Cole C J. DESSAUER H C. TOWNSEND C R. ARNOLD M G. 1990. Unisexual lizards of the genus Gymnophthalmus (Reptilia Teiidae) in the neotropics: genetics origin and systematics. American Museum Novitates (2994): 1-29. - get paper here
  • Cole, Charles J.; Carol R. Townsend, Robert P. Reynolds, Ross D. MacCulloch, and Amy Lathrop 2013. Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 125 (4): 317-578; plates: 580-620 - get paper here
  • Cole, Charles J.;Townsend, Carol R.;Dessauer, Herbert C.;Hardy, Laurence M. 1989. A lizard foretold. Natural History 1989 (5): 12-17
  • Cope, E.D. 1875. On the Batrachia and Reptilia of Costa Rica with notes on the herpetology and ichthyology of Nicaragua and Peru. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia N.S. (2) 8: 93-183 [sometimes said to be published 1876 but see Murphy et al. 2007 for clarification]] - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1879. Eleventh contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 18: 261-277. - get paper here
  • Cope, Edward D. 1869. Catalogue of Batrachia and Reptilia obtained by J. A. McNiel in Nicaragua. First Annual report of the Trustees of the Peabody Academy of Science 1869: 80-82
  • Esqueda, Luis Felipe, Enrique La Marca, Marco Natera and Pietro Battiston 2001. Noteworthy reptilian state records and a lizard species new to the herpetofauna of Venezuela. Herpetological Review 32 (3):198-200 - get paper here
  • García-Roa, Roberto and Javier Sunyer. 2012. New distribution records of Gymnophthalmus speciosus (Hallowell, 1861) (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae) in Nicaragua. Herpetology Notes 6: 539-542
  • Günther, A. C. L. G. 1885. Reptilia and Batrachia. Biologia Centrali-Américana. Taylor, & Francis, London, 326 pp. [published in parts from 1885-1902; reprint by the SSAR 1987] - get paper here
  • Hallowell, E. 1861. Report upon the Reptilia of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition, under command of Capt. John Rogers, U. S. N. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12 [1860]: 480 - 510 - get paper here
  • Hedges SB, Powell R, Henderson RW, Hanson S, and Murphy JC 2019. Definition of the Caribbean Islands biogeographic region, with checklist and recommendations for standardized common names of amphibians and reptiles. Caribbean Herpetology 67: 1–53
  • Henao-Osorio JJ, Pereira-Ramírez AM, Cardona-Giraldo A, et al. 2021. On the distribution of three exotic geckos of genus Hemidactylus Gray, 1825 (Squamata, Gekkonidae), and an unusual record of the native lizard Gymnophthalmus speciosus (Hallowell, 1861) outside its elevational range in Colombia. Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc.Ex. Fis. Nat. 2021 May 18
  • HERNANDEZ-RUZ, EMIL JOSÉ. 2006. GYMNOPHTHALMUS SPECIOSUS (HALLOWELL 1861) (SQUAMATA, GYMNOPHTHALMIDAE) EN COLOMBIA. Caldasia 28 (1): 79-88 - get paper here
  • Hummelinck, P. W. 1940. Studies on the fauna of Curacao, Aruba, Bonaire and the Venezuelan Islands: No. 2. A survey of the mammals, lizards and mollusks. ['Gymnophthalmus laevicaudus: 80]. Studies on the Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands. 1:59—108
  • Johnson, Jerry D.; Vicente Mata-Silva, Elí García Padilla, and Larry David Wilson 2015. The Herpetofauna of Chiapas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (3): 272–329. - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2000. Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas, Bd 1: Krokodile, Schildkröten, Echsen. Herpeton Verlag, Offenbach, 158 pp.
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • Larreal, J.T.; G.A. Rivas; C. Portillo-Quintero; T.R. Barros 2012. Squamata reptiles of a fragment of tropical dry forest in northwestern Venezuela (Lake Maracaibo region). Check List 8(6):1220-1224 - get paper here
  • Lee, J. C. 2000. A field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of the Maya world. Cornell University Press, Ithaca,
  • Lee, J.C. 1996. The amphibians and reptiles of the Yucatán Peninsula. Comstock, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 500 pp.
  • Leenders, T. 2004. Der Nationalpark “El Imposible” in El Salvador. Reptilia (Münster) 9 (48): 45-49 - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 6–62 - get paper here
  • McCoy, C. J. 1990. Additions to the herpetofauna of Belize, Central America. Carib. J. Sci. 26 (3-4): 164-166
  • McCranie, James R. 2015. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed. Zootaxa 3931 (3): 352–386 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. 2018. The Lizards, Crocodiles, and Turtles of Honduras. Systematics, Distribution, and Conservation. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Special Publication Series (2): 1- 666 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R., and Alexander Gutsche. 2016. The herpetofauna of islands in the Golfo de Fonseca and adjacent waters, Honduras. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (4): 842–899 - get paper here
  • Medina-Rangel, Guido Fabián 2013. CAMBIO EstACIOnAl En El UsO DE lOs RECURsOs DE lA COMUnIDAD DE REptIlEs En El COMplEJO CEnAgOsO DE ZApAtOsA, DEpARtAMEntO DEl CEsAR (Colombia). Caldasia 35 (1): 103-122 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1952. Die Amphibien und Reptilien von El Salvador. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) (No. 487): 120 pp.
  • Meza-Joya, Fabio Leonardo; Eliana Ramos-Pallares 2015. New records, range extensions and updated distribution of two gymnophthalmid lizards from the Caribbean Region, Colombia. Check List 11 (5): 1735 - get paper here
  • Nemuras, K. 1967. Notes on the Herpetology of Panama: Part 3. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 3 (2): 31-40 - get paper here
  • Pedroza-Banda, Raúl; Jhon Jairo Ospina-Sarria, Teddy Angarita-Sierra, Marvin Anganoy-Criollo, John D. Lynch 2014. Estado de la fauna de anfibios y reptiles del Casanare Ciencias naturales Estado del conocimiento de la fauna de anfibios y reptiles del departamento de Casanare, Colombia. Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. 38 (146): 17-34 - get paper here
  • Presch, W. 1978. Descriptions of the Hemipenial Morphology in Eight Species of Microteiid Lizards (Family Teiidae, Subfamily Gymnophthalminae) Herpetologica 34 (1): 108-112. - get paper here
  • RECODER, RENATO SOUSA; FRANCISCO DAL VECHIO, SERGIO MARQUES-SOUZA, MAURO JR. TEIXEIRA, MAIUME SILVA-DA-SILVA, ALFREDO P. SANTOS-JR., SÍRIA RIBEIRO, CESAR BARRIO-AMORÓS, MIGUEL TREFAUT RODRIGUES 2018. Geographic variation and taxonomy of red-tailed Gymnophthalmus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from Amazonian Savannas. Zootaxa 4497 (1): 061–081 - get paper here
  • Reynolds, Robert P., James F. Whatton and Christina A. Gebhard. 2014. Gymnophthalmus speciosus (golden spectacled tegu) predation by great egret. Herpetological Review 45 (1): 128 - get paper here
  • Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A. & Silvana Amaral 2016. Diversity, distribution, and conservation of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) in the Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Biodiversity, 2:1, 195-421 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Rivero, Ramon and Jesus Manzanilla. 2006. Gymnophthalmus speciosus, Bachia heteropa Predation. Herpetological Review 37 (1): 84-85 - get paper here
  • Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando J.M.; Rivero, Edwin E. Infante; Barrio-Amorós, César L.; Blanco, Tito R. Barros. 2007. New distributional records of amphibians and reptiles from Estado Zulia in the Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. Herpetological Review 38 (2): 235-237 - get paper here
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
  • Señaris, J. Celsa; María Matilde Aristeguieta Padrón, Haidy Rojas Gil y Fernando J. M. Rojas-Runjaic 2018. Guía ilustrada de los anfibios y reptiles del valle de Caracas, Venezuela. Ediciones IVIC, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC). Caracas, Venezuela. 348 pp.
  • Smith, H. M., & LANGEBARTEL, D. A. 1949. Notes on a collection of reptiles and amphibians from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. J. Washington Acad. Sci. 39: 409-416.
  • Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144 - get paper here
  • Stuart, L. C. 1939. A description of a new Gymnophthalmus from Guatemala, with notes on other members of the genus. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (409): 1-10 - get paper here
  • Stuart,L.C. 1963. A checklist of the herpetofauna of Guatemala. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool., Univ. Michigan (No. 122): 1-150 - get paper here
  • Sunyer, Javier 2014. An updated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nicaragua. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1 (2): 186–202. - get paper here
  • Taylor, E. H. 1956. A review of the lizards of Costa Rica. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 38 (part 1): 3-322 - get paper here
  • Valencia-Zuleta A, Jaramillo-Martínez AF, Echeverry-Bocanegra A, Viáfara-Vega R, Hernández-Córdoba O, Cardona-Botero VE, Gutiérrez-Zúñiga J, Castro-Herrera F. 2014. Conservation status of the herpetofauna, protected areas, and current problems in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 8 (2): 1–18 (e87) - get paper here
  • Vanzolini P E. CARVALHO C M D. 1991. Two sibling and sympatric species of Gymnophthalmus in Roraima, Brazil (Sauria: Teiidae). Pap. Avul. Zool., Sao Paulo 37 (12): 173-226
 
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:


Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator