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Gymnophthalmus speciosus (HALLOWELL, 1861)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Gymnophthalminae), Gymnophthalmini, Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesGymnophthalmus speciosus speciosus (HALLOWELL 1861)
Gymnophthalmus speciosus birdi STUART 1939
Gymnophthalmus speciosus sumichrasti (COPE 1875) 
Common NamesE: Golden Tegulet, Golden Spectacled Tegu
S: Lagartija dorada, lisita coliroja 
SynonymBlepharictisis speciosa HALLOWELL 1861: 484
Tretioscincus laevicaudus COPE 1869 (fide PETERS et al. 1970: 138)
Gymnophthalmus speciosus — STUART 1939: 4
Gymnophthalmus laevicaudus — HUMMELINCK 1940: 86
Gymnophthalmus speciosus speciosus — MERTENS 1952: 56
Gymnopthalmus speciosus — NEMURAS 1967: 33 (in error)
Gymnophthalmus speciosus — PETERS et al. 1970: 138
Gymnophthalmus speciosus — PRESCH 1978
Gymnophthalmus speciosus — HARDY et al. 1989: 215
Gymnophthalmus speciosus — LINER 1994
Gymnophthalmus speciosus — MATA-SILVA et al. 2015
Gymnophthalmus cf. speciosus — GARCÍA-PÉREZ & SCHARGEL 2017
Gymnophthalmus aff. speciosus — SEÑARIS et al. 2018

Gymnophthalmus speciosus birdi STUART 1939
Gymnophthalmus birdi STUART 1939
Gymnophthalmus speciosus birdi — MERTENS 1952: 56
Gymnophthalmus speciosus birdi — PETERS et al. 1970: 138
Gymnophthalmus speciosus birdi — MCCOY 1990

Gymnophthalmus speciosus sumichrasti COPE 1875
Epaphelus sumichrasti COPE 1875: 115
Epaphelus sumichrasti — COPE 1879: 270
Gymnophthalmus sumichrasti — GÜNTHER 1885: 29
Gymnophthalmus speciosus sumichrasti — STUART 1939
Gymnophthalmus sumichrasti — SMITH & LANGEBARTEL 1949: 410
Gymnophthalmus sumichrasti — ÁLVAREZ DEL TORO & SMITH 1956
Gymnophthalmus speciosus sumichrasti — STUART 1963
Gymnophthalmus speciosus sumichrasti — PETERS et al. 1970: 138 
DistributionS Mexico (Chiapas, Oaxaca), W Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela (Carabobo, Zulia etc.), Guyana,
Colombia (North Coast of Colombia; Magdalena and Cauca Valley Rivers, Valle del Cauca), Margarita I, Chacachacare Island, Aruba island (fide Hummelinck 1940)

Type locality: Nicaragua

birdi: Guatemala; Type locality: Guatemala, Baja Verapaz, Salamá Basin, 2 km S San Gerónimo.  
Reproductionoviparous; bisexual species (in contrast to G. underwoodi). 
TypesSyntype: MCZ R-5788
Holotype: UMMZ 84057 [birdi]
Holotype: USNM 30245-46; collected by F.E. Sumichrast. [sumichrasti] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION; These small, slender lizards are superficially skinklike in general appearance. The adults are about 40 mm in snout-vent length, and the undamaged tail is very long, nearly twice the length of the head and body. The only known specimen from the Yucatan Peninsula measures 43.5 mm in snout-vent length (McCoy, 1990:165). The scales on both the dorsum and the venter are large, highly polished, and imbricate, and the lateral scales are slightly smaller. The head is covered with a series of enlarged, smooth, symmetrically arranged plates. The limbs are rather small and weak, and they terminate in tiny claws. The eyes are small and covered by a transparent spectacle, and the pupils are round.
The dorsum, including the dorsal surface of the head, is generally tan, brown, or gray, often contrasting sharply with the darker sides. The venter ranges from light to dark gray; often each ventral scale is suffused with dark pigment. The tail, especially in younger individuals, is reddish orange and contrasts with the darker body. The chin is cream, yellow, or tan, often with dark spots (from Lee 1996: 251).

Characters (laevicaudus). 13 longitudinal scale-rows across abdomen; 33-35 transversal scale-rows between occiput and vent; nasal entire, with a faint indication of a lower suture, or not entire; about 6 femoral pores on each side; 1 yellowish-white longitudinal band on each side anteriorly, On the continent possibly not clearly separated from G. lineatus (cf. Ruthven) (Hummelinck 1940: 86). 
CommentDistribution: Chacachacare Island is off Trinidad. This species apparently has not been found on Trinidad itself.

Similar species (in the Yucatan Peninsula): No other lizard in the Yucatan Peninsula has only four digits on the hand. Gymnophthalmus speciosus superficially resembles Sphenomorphus cherriei but differs in having a transparent spectacle covering the eye. 
EtymologyThe name speciosus is Latin meaning ‘‘showy, splendid.’’ Hallowell (1861) gave no indication to what his name referred, but it probably refers to the handsome dorsal body and tail coloration (McCranie 2018: 377). 
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