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Habrophallos collaris (HOOGMOED, 1977)

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Higher TaxaLeptotyphlopidae, Epictinae, Epictini, Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Collared Blind Snake 
SynonymLeptotyphlops collaris HOOGMOED 1977
Leptotyphlops collaris — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Leptotyphlops collaris — STARACE 1998: 75
Leptotyphlops collaris — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 25
Epictia collaris — WALLACH et al. 2014: 276
Epictia collaris — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019
Habrophallos collaris — MARTINS et al. 2020 
DistributionN Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil

Type locality: Base Camp Nassau Mountains, District Marowijne, Suriname  
TypesHolotype: RMNH 13468 (type status unclear fide Esther Dondorp, pers. comm. 28 Jan 2019) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Habrophallos is a small leptotyphlopid snake genus characterized by the following unique combination of characters: hemipenis unilobed, with two flattened areas (one basal and another on the apex); hemipenis with a large lateral flounce with folding at one side and a hook‐shaped process on the other side; apex of the hemipenis with a double projection lateroprox‐ imally oriented; skull with paired nasal bones; parietal bone not fused to any other skull element; parietal fontanelle absent, in‐ ternal pillars of parietal bone present; supraoccipitals fused into a single unit, moderate statolithic mass present in cavum vestibuli, otooccipitals prevent the basioccipital on forming the foramen magnum; distinct eye; midbody scale rows 14, midtail scale rows 10; 151–163 middorsal scales, 13–15 subcaudals, 1 + 1 supralabi‐ als; 92–120 mm maximum total length in adults, a body shape of 31–41 (total length/width), a relative tail length of 8.5%–9.7%, a relation of tail length/diameter of 3.3–4.7; supraocular scale present; terminal spine present; no striped pattern (although some lighter pigmentation in the tip of scales might suggest a striped pattern), brown dorsal color, and light brown venter; yellow blotch on rostral region present; ultimate part of tail including spine yellow; yellow nuchal collar present. 
CommentType species: Habrophallos collaris (Hoogmoed, 1977) is the type species of the genus Habrophallos MARTINS et al. 2020.

Distribution: see map in Hoogmoed and Lima (2018). See map in Nogueira et al. 2019. 
EtymologyThe species is named after the Latin word collaris meaning collar (Lemos-Espinal & Dixon 2013).

The generic name is derived from the Greek “habros” (pretty, graceful, delicate) + the Greek “phallos,” used herein in reference to the small, delicate, and diagnostic hemipenial morphology of the new genus. 
  • Adalsteinsson, S.A.; Branch, W.R.; Trapé, S.; Vitt, L.J. & Hedges, S.B. 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of snakes of the Family Leptotyphlopidae (Reptilia, Squamata). Zootaxa 2244: 1-50 - get paper here
  • FRANCISCO, BÁRBARA CRISTINA S.; ROBERTA R. PINTO & DANIEL S. FERNANDES 2012. Taxonomy of Epictia munoai (Orejas-Miranda, 1961) (Squamata: Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae). Zootaxa 3512: 42–52 - get paper here
  • Gasc & Rodrigues 1980. Liste preliminaire des Serpents de la Guyane francaise. Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris 2 (4): 559-598
  • Hedges, S.B., Marion, A.B., Lipp, K.M., Marin, J. & Vidal, N. 2014. A taxonomic framework for typhlopid snakes from the Caribbean and other regions (Reptilia, Squamata). Caribbean Herpetology 49: 1–61 - get paper here
  • Hoogmoed, M. S. 1977. Notes on the herpetofauna of Surinam V. On a new species of Leptotyphlops from Surinam, with notes on the other Surinam species of the genus (Leptotyphlopidae, Serpentes). Zoologische Mededelingen 51 (7): 99-123 - get paper here
  • Hoogmoed, M.S. 1982. Snakes of the Guianan Region. Mem. Inst. Butantan 46: 219-254. - get paper here
  • Martins AR, Koch C, Pinto R, Folly M, Fouquet A, Passos P. 2019. From the inside out: Discovery of a new genus of threadsnakes based on anatomical and molecular data, with discussion of the leptotyphlopid hemipenial morphology. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Rersearch - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Starace, Fausto 1998. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. IBIS Rouge Editions, Guadeloupe, Guyane, 450 pp.
  • Starace, Fausto 2013. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. Ibis Rouge Editions, Matoury, Guyane, ISBN 978-2-84450-407-4 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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