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Helicops pastazae SHREVE, 1934

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Shreve's Keelback 
SynonymHelicops pastazae SHREVE 1934: 129
Helicops pastazae — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 125
Helicops pastazae — KORNACKER 1999: 89
Helicops pastazae — WHITHWORTH & BEIRNE 2011
Helicops pastazae — WALLACH et al. 2014: 322 
DistributionEcuador, Colombia, Venezuela (Zulia), Peru

Type locality: Río Pastaza, between Canelos and the Marañon River, Ecuador.  
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesHolotype: MCZ 36993 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Helicops pastazae can be distinguished from all other congeners except H. hagmanni and H. yacu by the combination of having subcaudal keels, intergenials present, and 23–25 dorsal scale rows at midbody. From H. hagmanni it differs in having 72–117 subcaudal scales (versus 50–59 in H. hagmanni). From H. yacu it differs in having a semidivided nasal scale (entire in H. yacu; for information on references see Suppl. material 3, Schöneberg & Köhler 2021). 
Comment 
References
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Cobos, Daniela García; Diego Andres Gómez Sánchez 2019. Reproductive mode and defensive behaviour of the South American aquatic snake Helicops pastazae (Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Herpetology Notes 12: 447-451 - get paper here
  • Costa, Henrique C.; Diego J. Santana, Fernando Leal, Ricardo Koroiva, and Paulo C.A. Garcia 2016. A New Species of Helicops (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Hydropsini) from Southeastern Brazil. Herpetologica 72 (2): 157-166 - get paper here
  • Kawashita-Ribeiro, Ricardo Alexandre; Robson Waldemar Ávila, and Drausio Honorio Morais 2013. A New Snake of the Genus Helicops Wagler, 1830 (Dipsadidae, Xenodontinae) from Brazil. Herpetologica 69 (1): 80-90. - get paper here
  • Kornacker,P.M. 1999. Checklist and key to the snakes of Venezuela. PaKo-Verlag, Rheinbach, Germany, 270 pp.
  • Lancini,A.R. & Kornacker,P.M. 1989. Die Schlangen von Venezuela. Armitano Editores C.A., Caracas, 1-381
  • Lourdes-Almendariz, Ana De 2017. Feeding behavior of Helicops pastazae Shreve 1934 (Serpentes, Colubridae, Dipsadinae) in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Herpetology Notes 10: 449-451 - get paper here
  • Markezich, A.L. 2002. New distribution records of reptiles from Western Venezuela. Herpetological Review 33 (1): 69-74 - get paper here
  • MORAES-DA-SILVA, ANTONIO; RENATA CECÍLIA AMARO, PEDRO M. SALES NUNES, CHRISTINE STRÜSSMANN, MAURO JUNIOR TEIXEIRA, ALBEDI JR. ANDRADE, VINÍCIUS SUDRÉ, RENATO RECODER, MIGUEL TREFAUT RODRIGUES, FELIPE FRANCO CURCIO 2019. Chance, luck and a fortunate finding: a new species of watersnake of the genus Helicops Wagler, 1828 (Serpentes: Xenodontinae), from the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands. Zootaxa 4651 (3): 445–470 - get paper here
  • Muñoz-Saba, Yaneth; Nathaly Calvo-Roa, Paul Andrés Gómez-Sandoval, Diego Casallas-Pabón John Douglas Lynch, Lucas S. Barrientos, Diego A. Gómez-Sánchez. 2019. Guía de campo de los mamíferos, anfibios y reptiles de Santa María (Boyacá, Colombia). Serie Guías de Campo del Instituto de Ciencias Naturales. N° 23. Bogotá D.C. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Bogotá. 317 p - get paper here
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela. Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • Pedroza-Banda, Raúl; Jhon Jairo Ospina-Sarria, Teddy Angarita-Sierra, Marvin Anganoy-Criollo, John D. Lynch 2014. Estado de la fauna de anfibios y reptiles del Casanare Ciencias naturales Estado del conocimiento de la fauna de anfibios y reptiles del departamento de Casanare, Colombia. Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. 38 (146): 17-34 - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Rossman, Douglas A. 1976. Revision of the South American colubrid snakes of the Helicops pastazae complex. Occasional papers of the Museum of Zoology, Louisiana State University (50): 1-15 - get paper here
  • Schöneberg, Y., & Köhler, G. 2021. Distribution and identification of the species in the genus Helicops Wagler, 1830 (Serpentes, Colubridae, Xenodontinae). ARPHA Preprints, 1, e67869 - get paper here
  • Shreve, B. 1934. NOTES ON ECUADORIAN SNAKES. Occ. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 8: 125- 131 - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Pazmiño-Otamendi G, Salazar-Valenzuela D. 2019. Reptiles of Ecuador: a resource-rich portal, with a dynamic checklist and photographic guides. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1): [General Section]: 209–229 (e178) - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Whithworth, A. & Beirne, C. 2011. Reptiles of the Yachana Reserve. Global Vision International, 130 pp. - get paper here
 
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