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Heterodactylus septentrionalis RODRIGUES, DE FREITAS & SILVA, 2009

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Gymnophthalminae), Heterodactylini, Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymHeterodactylus septentrionalis RODRIGUES, DE FREITAS & SILVA 2009 
DistributionBrazil (Bahia: Chapada Diamantina)

Type locality: Fazenda Caraibas (13°09’49’’S, 41°24’19’’W), district of Cascavel, municipality of Mucuge, Serra do Espinhaco (Chapada Diamantina): state of Bahia: Brazil.  
TypesHolotype: MZUSP 98087, adult female, collected by Marco Antonio de Freitas and Thais Figueiredo Santos Silva on 5 July 2007, field number MTR 13998. Paratype.—MZUSP 95588, adult female, col- lected by Marco Antonio de Freitas and Thais Figueiredo Santos Silva on 8 December 2005, field number MTR 11786, all other data as for the holotype. 
DiagnosisHeterodactylus septentrionalis is characterized by very elongate body and tail, absence of external ear opening, presence of moveable eyelids, absence of prefrontals and frontoparietals, a vestigial interparietal, 37–39 dorsal and 27–29 ventral transverse scale rows, 23–25 scales around midbody, six gular scale rows, and 10–11 and 14–15 fourth finger and fourth toe infradigital lamellae, respectively. The new species is most similar to Heterodactylus lundii from which it differs by the absence of contact between frontal and interparietal, by having wider than long parietals, smooth posterior dorsal scales, posterior ventral scales almost twice longer than wide, a lower number of scales around midbody, last supralabial in contact with the granules of the ear depression, and a more elongate body. 
CommentDistribution: The new species occurs about 1,100 km north of the northernmost known record of H. lundii. Species of Heterodactylus seem to be restricted to areas of cold climates associated with high latitudes and mountainous areas of eastern Brazil.

Abundance: only known from its original description (Meiri et al. 2017). 
EtymologyEtymology.—A reference to the northern occurrence of the new species. 
  • Freitas, M.A.; D. Veríssimo; V. Uhlig. 2012. Squamate Reptiles of the central Chapada Diamantina, with a focus on the municipality of Mucugê, state of Bahia, Brazil. Check List 8(1):16-22 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • Rodrigues, Miguel T., Marco Antonio de Freitas and Thais Figueiredo Santos Silva. 2009. New species of earless lizard genus Heterodactylus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Highlands of Chapada Diamantina, State of Bahia, Brazil. Journal of Herpetology 43 (4): 605-611 - get paper here
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