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Homonota itambere CABRAL & CACCIALI, 2021

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Higher TaxaPhyllodactylidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common Names 
SynonymHomonota itambere CABRAL & CACCIALI 2021 

Type locality: Estancia Guajho, Paraguari Deparment (26.14°S, 57.17°W), 143 m elevation.  
TypesHolotype: IIBP 4437, an adult female from Estancia Guajho, Departamento of Paraguari (26°14’55.81”S, 57°17’48.03”W, 143 m) (Figure 2), collected by Hugo Cabral, 14 December 2016. Collecting permits were provided by the Ministerio del Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible, MADES 126/2016 and 258/2016. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A species of Homonota assigned to the horrida group (sensu Cacciali et al. 2018) based on molecular evidence and by the color pattern composed of a white vertebral line and five to seven transverse white lines appearing as banded, similar to H. horrida, H. septentrionalis and H. marthae. A large species of Homonota (SVL= 56 mm) with robust body, with 1 longitudinal rows of strongly keeled scales separated by one or two granular scales, a square shape mental scale, small postmental scales, one or two rows of rectangular scales in the upper eye scales, rostral scale divided, edge of auditory meatus serrated posteriorly with an enlarged tubercle, and black and brown background coloration with one white vertebral line with seven transverse white bands. (Cabral & Cacciali, 2021).

Comparisons: It can be distinguished from H. andinicola, H. whitii and H. underwoodi, H. darwinii by the presence of longitudinal rows of dorsal keeled scales (smooth dorsal scales in H. andinicola, H. whitii and H. underwoodi, keeled scales restricted to the posterior part of the dorsum in H. darwinii), also from H. underwoodi by the low number of 4TL (17) (vs 20-25 4TL in H. underwoodi), also from H. rupicola by the high number of 4TL (17) (vs 14-15 in H. rupicola), differs from H. rupicola, H. taragui, H. williamsi, H. borelli, H. andinicola and H. whitii by the higher number of 3FL (15) (vs 10-12 in H. rupicola, 11-13 in H. taragui, 11-14 in H. williamsi, 10-13 in H. borelli, 13-14 in H. andinicola and 12-14 in H. whitii), from H. borelli and H. rupicola by the oblique shape of the auditory meatus (rounded in H. borelli and H. rupicola), from H. rupicola, H. taragui, H. borelli and H. uruguayensis by serrated edge of the auditory meatus (smooth in H. rupicola, H. taragui, H. borelli and H. uruguayensis) from H. septentrionalis, H. marthae and H. horrida by the number of keeled longitudinal dorsal scales (10) (vs. 4-8 in H. septentrionalis and H. marthae and 16 in H. horrida) from H. horrida and H. rupicola by the relative high position of the auditory meatus to the mouth commissure (lower position in H. horrida and H. rupicola). Differs from H. rupicola, H. taragui, H. williamsi by the well-developed tubercules, some with keeled scales on the side of the head, from the eye to the neck (vs. less developed tubercules or moderate keeled in H. rupicola, H. taragui, H. williamsi), from H. rupicola, H. taragui, H. williamsi, H. uruguayensis by the dorsal coloration of the head and body consisting of transverse clear bands on a darker dorsum (vs. reticulate pattern, resembling a salt and pepper pattern), also differs from H. marthae, H. septentrionalis and H. horrida by the tail’s poorly developed keeled scales, (strongly keeled scales especially at the base of the tail in H. marthae, H. septentrionalis and H. horrida), H. marthae by the presence of a thin white occipital band (lack of a white band in H. marthae), also from H. septentrionalis and H. horrida by the thin white occipital band (vs. wider white occipital band), from H. septentrionalis by the shape of the mental scales, with a more quadrangular shape (vs. mental scales with a triangular shape, longer then wider in H. septentrionalis and finally from H. horrida by the small size of the postmental scales, about the same size of posterior scales (moderately enlarged postmental scales, about twice the size of corresponding scales in H. horrida) (Cabral & Cacciali, 2021)

Color in life: Dorsal surface of the head with small white and brown blotches irregularly mixed with black marks and a thin occipital white band from eye to eye, this occipital band is followed posteriorly by a dark brown coloration, dorsal surface of the neck with a black band separated with a white transverse band. Supralabials, infralabials and rostral dark brown with white on the suture of scales, upper lateral view of the head dark brown from nostril to eyes, and from eyes to auditory meatus, covered by thin light brown line and white scales from the commissure of the mouth to the suprascapular region. Dorsal coloration is black and brown bands separated by a transvers white band and a vertebral white stripe from the neck to the first four scales of the tail. Dorsal surface of the limb, forelimb, fingers and toes with a salt and pepper coloration with brown, black and very conspicuous white marks, dorsal coloration of the tail with brown and black incomplete and diffused stripes. Ventral coloration is immaculate white from mental scale to cloaca region, with the presence of black chromatophores in all the ventral scales, not visible with the naked eye, tail with grey coloration. Only the ventral region of the arms and finger lamellae have a brown coloration (Cabral & Cacciali, 2021). 
EtymologyThe epithet is combination of two Guarani words, ita = rock, ambere = lizard, a lizard who lives in the rocks. The species name is an allusion of the habitat where the species was found, as a lizard that lives in the rocks. The name is used here as a noun in apposition. 
  • Cabral, H., & Cacciali, P. 2021. A new species of Homonota (Squamata: Gekkota: Phyllodactylidae) from Paraguay. Holotipus, 2: 93-108 - get paper here
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