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Hydrophis stokesii (GRAY, 1846)

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Higher TaxaElapidae (Hydrophiinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Stoke’s seasnake
Chinese: 棘鳞海蛇 
SynonymHydrus Stokesii GRAY 1846: 502
Hydrus major SHAW 1802 (part.)
Astrotia stokesi — WALL 1909
Hydrophis schizopholis SCHMIDT 1846
Hydrus annulatus GRAY 1849
Hydrophis schizopholis — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1357
Astrotia schizopholis — FISCHER 1856: 38
Hydrophis Güntheri THEOBALD 1868
Hydrophis granosa ANDERSON 1871: 190
Hydrophis guttata MURRAY 1887
Disteira stokesii — BOULENGER 1896
Astrotia stokesi — WALL 1921: 396
Astrotia stokesi — SMITH 1943: 471
Disteira stokesii — GRANDISON 1978: 296
Astrotia stokesii — COGGER 1983
Disteira stokesii — RASMUSSEN 1997
Astrotia stokesii — COGGER 2000: 706
Disteira stokesii — KHARIN 2005
Astrotia stokesii — NGUYEN et al. 2009
Astrotia stokesii — WILSON & SWAN 2010: 518
Astrotia stokesii — RASMUSSEN et al. 2011
Hydrophis stokesii — SANDERS et al. 2012
Astrotia stokesii — WALLACH et al. 2014: 60
Astrotia stokesii — COGGER 2014: 813
Disteira stokesii — CHAN-ARD et al. 2015: 265 
DistributionChina Sea and Strait of Taiwan. Coastal areas from W India , and Sri Lanka Lanka west through Gulf of Siam, Thailand, to China Sea, W Malaysia, Vietnam
Indonesia east to New Guinea and the northern and eastern coast of Australia
SE Asian Sea (from Pakistan to Australia), Philippines
Arabian peninsula

Type locality: Australian Seas.  
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946. 1. 17. 12 
Diagnosis 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy after COGGER 1983.

Type species: Hydrophis schizopholis SCHMIDT 1846 is the type species of the genus Astrotia FISCHER 1855: 38.

Habitat: marine.

Diagnostic characters: Ventrals divided into pairs of foliform scales, except on throat. Body stout, covered with strongly imbricate scales. Scale rows around neck 37–47; scale rows around body 46–63; ventrals 226–286. Maxillary teeth behind fangs 6–7. Colouration: Highly variable; body ranging from brown to more creamy-white above, pale brown or whitish below. Sometimes has 24–36 dark or black bands above, each tapering to a point lat- erally. Some specimens have spots in between the bands, laterally as well as ventrally. 
References
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