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Hydrosaurus amboinensis (SCHLOSSER, 1768)

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Hydrosaurinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: (Amboina) Sailfin Lizard
G: Segelechse 
SynonymLacerta amboinensis SCHLOSSER 1768
Iguana amboinensis — MEYER 1795: 16
Lacerta amboinensis — SHAW & NODDER 1799: plate 403
Lacerta lophura SHAW 1802: 218
Istiurus Amboinensis — CUVIER 1829
Lacerta Amboinensis — CUVIER 1831: 131
Istiurus Amboinensis — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 380
Lacerta javanica HORNSTEDT in GRAY 1845: 246 (nom. nud.; fide GRAY 1845)
Lophura shawii GRAY 1845: 247 (nom. subst. pro Lacerta amboinensis etc.)
Lophura amboinensis — GÜNTHER 1873
Lophura amboinensis — BOULENGER 1885: 402
Hydrosaurus amboinensis — POCHE 1903: 698
Lophura amboinensis — DE ROOIJ 1915: 128
Hydrosaurus amboinensis — WERMUTH 1967: 64
Hydrosaurus amboinensis — MANTHEY & SCHUSTER 1999: 69
Hydrosaurus cf. amboinensis — KOCH 2012: 149
Hydrosaurus amboinensis — DENZER et al. 2020 
DistributionIndonesia (Halmahera etc.), Papua New Guinea

Type locality: Amboina.  
TypesHolotype: NRM 1047 
DiagnosisHead small; snout long, with a small longitudinal crest of somewhat larger scales in the male; other head-scales very small, strongly keeled. Nostril oval, two times and a half nearer the tip of the snout than the orbit; tympanum large, half the diameter of the orbit; eleven upper and twelve lower labials. Gular scales small, unequal; a row of large shields on each side along the lower labials, beginning at the large mental; throat with longitudinal folds. Body compressed, nuchal crest continuous with the dorsal, composed of large lanceolate spines. Dorsal scales small, imbricate, keeled, all turned upwards, intermixed with large, dispersed, rounded, keeled scales. Ventral scales larger than dorsals, smooth, in transverse rows; enlarged scales on the sides of the chest. Femoral pores 7 16 on each side. Tail long, more than twice the length of head and body, covered with small quadrangular keeled scales, much larger beneath; caudal crest very high in the males at the anterior part of the tail, where it has a denticulated border; the middle part with a double-toothed low crest, the end not crested. Limbs long, the adpressed hind limb reaches the eye or the nostril, covered with keeled scales, much enlarged on the anterior part of the fore limb (de Rooij 1915: 128)

Coloration: Olive above, variegated with black; fold in front of shoulder black (de Rooij 1915: 128)

Size: Length of head and body 345 mm.; tail 750 mm (de Rooij 1915: 128) 
CommentSynonymy partly after WERMUTH 1967. Istiurus microlophus BLEEKER 1860 and Lophura celebensis PETERS 1872: 581 were previously considered as synonyms of amboinensis (e.g. BOULENGER 1885) but revalidated by Denzer et al. 2020.

Type species: Lacerta amboinensis SCHLOSSER 1768 is the type species of the genus Hydrosaurus KAUP 1828: 1147. Lacerta amboinensis is also the type species of the genus Istiurus CUVIER 1829. The name Lophura is pre-occupied by Lophura FLEMING 1822, a bird (POCHE 1903). 
EtymologyNamed after the type locality. 
  • Bleeker, P. 1860. [12. Reptilien van Boni]. Natuurkundl. Tijdschr. Nederl. Indie, Batavia 22: 81-85 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • Cuvier, G. 1831. The Animal Kingdom arranged in conformity with its organization, by the Baron Cuvier, ... with additional descriptions of all the species hitherto named, and of many not before noticed, by Edward Griffith... and others. Vol. 9. Whittaker, Treacher and Co., London, 481 pp. - get paper here
  • Das, I. 1993. Jour. Sarawak Mus., 44 (65): 128
  • de Rooij, N. de 1915. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. I. Lacertilia, Chelonia, Emydosauria. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 384 pp. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1837. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol. 4. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 570 pp. - get paper here
  • Gábris, J. 2003. Zur Haltung von philippinischen Segelechsen (Hydrosaurus pustulatus). Draco 4 (14): 24-33 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London: xxvii + 289 pp. - get paper here
  • Günther,A. 1873. Notes on some reptiles and batrachians obtained by Dr. Bernhard Meyer in Celebes and the Philippine Islands. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1873: 165-172 - get paper here
  • Koch, A. 2012. Discovery, Diversity, and Distribution of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Sulawesi and its offshore islands. Edition Chimaira, 374 pp. [ISBN 978-3-89973-432-4] - get paper here
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  • Meyer, F.A.A. 1795. Synopsis Reptilium, novam ipsorum sistens generum methodum, nec non Gottingensium huius ordinis animalium enumerationem. Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, Göttingen, 32 pp [for current names see Rösler & Böhme 2021] - get paper here
  • Okajima Y, Kumazawa Y 2010. Mitochondrial genomes of acrodont lizards: timing of gene rearrangements and phylogenetic and biogeographic implications. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10:141 - get paper here
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1872. Über einige von Hrn. Dr. A. B. Meyer bei Gorontalo und Auf den Togian-Inseln gesammelte Amphibien. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1872 (Juli): 581-585 - get paper here
  • Poche, F. 1903. Einige nothwendige Änderungen in der herpetologischen Nomenklatur. Zool. Anz. 26: 698-703 - get paper here
  • Rösler, Herbert & Wolfgang Böhme 2021. Das Leben von Friedrich Albrecht Anton Meyer (1768 – 1795) und die Herpetologie in seinen Schriften, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der „Synopsis Reptilium“. Sekretär 21: 83-129
  • Schlosser, J.A. 1768. Epistola ad F. DEJEAN de L. amboin. - get paper here
  • Setiadi, M. I. & A. Hamidy, 2006. Jenis-Jenis Herpetofauna di Pulau Halmahera. Kerjasama antara Pusat Studi Biodiversitas dan Konservasi Universitas Indonesia dan Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, Puslit Biologi Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia. - get paper here
  • Shaw, G. 1802. General Zoology, or Systematic Natural History. Vol.3, part 2. G. Kearsley, Thomas Davison, London: 313-615 - get paper here
  • Shaw, George & Nodder, Frederick P. (Eds.) 1800. The Naturalist's Miscellany [...], Vol. XI. London, Nodder & Co., plates 397-444, 192 unnumbered pages, [published in monthly issues be-tween August 1, 1799, and July 1, 1800] - get paper here
  • Siler, C.D., Lira-Noriega, A. & Brown, R.M. 2014. Conservation genetics of Australasian sailfin lizards: Flagship species threatened by coastal development and insufficient protected area coverage. Biological Conservation 169: 100–108 - get paper here
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  • Werning, H. 2015. Die Rückkehr der Urzeitechsen. Reptilia (Münster) 20 (114): 16-25 - get paper here
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