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Hypnale nepa (LAURENTI, 1768)

IUCN Red List - Hypnale nepa - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Sri Lanka Humpnose Viper 
SynonymColuber nepa LAURENTI 1768: 97
Hypnale nepa — GÜNTHER 1864 (part.)
Ancistrodon hypnale BOULENGER 1896
Ancistrodon nepa — SMITH 1937
Ancistrodon nepa — SMITH 1943: 500
Agkistrodon nepa — TAYLOR 1950: 595
Agkistrodon walli GLOYD 1977
Hypnale walli — WELCH 1994: 67
Hypnale nepa — WELCH 1994: 67
Hypnale nepa — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 310
Hypnale walli — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 311
Hypnale walli — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004
Hypnale nepa — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004
Hypnale nepa — WALLACH et al. 2014: 343 
DistributionSri Lanka, elevations above 900 m.

Type locality: “obviously Sri Lanka” fide HOGE & ROMANO-HOGE (1981: 199); originally given as “Habitat in Africa”, in error. Type locality of neotype: Agra Arboretum, Agarapatana, 06º50’N, 80º40’ E, elevation 1665 m.

walli: S Sri Lanka;Type locality: Kanneliya Forest, Udugama, Southern Province, Ceylon, elevation approx. 1000 ft.  
TypesNeotype: NMSL (= WHT) 6515 (designated by MAduwage et al. 2009) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis in Maduwage et al. 2009. 
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Ganesh, S. R.; Subramanian Bhupathy, Patrick David, N. Sathishkumar, G. Srinivas 2014. Snake Fauna of High Wavy Mountains, Western Ghats, India: Species Richness, Status, and Distribution Pattern. Russ. J. Herpetol. 21 (1): 53-64
  • Gloyd, H.K. 1977. Descriptions of new taxa of crotalid snakes from China and Ceylon (Sri Lanka). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 90: 1002-1015 - get paper here
  • Gumprecht, A.; Tillack, F.; Orlov, N.L.; Captain, A. & Ryabow, S. 2004. Asian pitvipers. Geitje Books, Berlin, 368 pp.
  • Hoge & Romano-Hoge 1981. Poisonous snakes of the world. Part I. Check list of the pit vipers, Viperoidea, Viperidae, Crotalinae. Mem. Inst. Butantan 42/43 [1978-1979]: 179-309 - get paper here
  • JANZEN, P. 2021. Morningside – ein herpetologisches Highlight Sri Lankas. Sauria 43 (1): 9-37 - get paper here
  • Janzen, P.; Klaas, P. & Ziesmann, S. 2007. Sri Lankas Schlangenfauna. Draco 7 (30): 56-64 - get paper here
  • Laurenti, J. N. 1768. Specimen medicum, exhibens synopsin reptilium emendatam cum experimentis circa venena et antidota reptilium austracorum, quod authoritate et consensu. Vienna, Joan. Thomae, 217 pp. - get paper here
  • Madawala, Majintha; Thilina D Surasinghe, Anslem De Silva, Dinesh Gabadage, Madhava Botejue, Indika Peabotuwage, Dushantha Kandambi, Suranjan Karunarathna 2019. Reappraisal of Herpetofauna Recorded from Jaffna Peninsula in Northern Sri Lanka with Remarks on Conservation, Diversity, and Distribution. Russ. J. Herpetol. 26 (5): 247-260 - get paper here
  • MADUWAGE, KALANA; ANJANA SILVA, KELUM MANAMENDRA-ARACHCHI & ROHAN PETHIYAGODA 2009. A taxonomic revision of the South Asian hump-nosed pit vipers (Squamata: Viperidae: Hypnale). Zootaxa 2232: 1-28 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Taylor, Edward H. 1950. The snakes of Ceylon. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 33 (14): 519-603 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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