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Incaspis simonsii BOULENGER, 1900

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common Names 
SynonymPhilodryas simonsii BOULENGER 1900: 185
Leimadophis simonsii — PARKER 1932: 22
Dromicus inca SCHMIDT & WALKER 1943: 325 (fide THOMAS 1976)
Dromicus angustilineatus SCHMIDT & WALKER 1943: 308
Dromicus angustilineatus — MARX 1958
Dromicus inca — MARX 1958
Incaspis cercostropha DONOSO-BARROS 1974
Leimadophis simonsii — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 149
Liophis angustilineatus — DIXON 1980
Philodryas simonsii — LEHR et al. 2002
Philodryas simonsii — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012
Philodryas simonsii — WALLACH et al. 2014: 552
Incaspis simonsii — ARREDONDO et al. 2020
Philodryas simonsii — MELO-SAMPAIO et al. 2020 
DistributionN Peru, S Ecuador

inca: Peru (Cajamarca); Type locality: Cajamarca, Dep. de Cajamarca, Peru;

angustilineatus: Chile, SW Peru; Type locality: Toquepala, Tacna, Peru;  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.4.98
Holotype: FMNH 5713 [inca]
Holotype: MCZ 45908 [angustilineatus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (inca): A Dromicus closely allied to angustilineatus in color pattern but differing from that species in having a lower number of ventrals, 184 as opposed to 195 for the minimum in males of angustilineatus; differing also in having a more distinct lateral stripe [SCHMIDT & WALKER 1943].

Diagnosis (angustilineatus): A Dromicus allied to chamissonis of coastal Chile, but with ventrals 204-217 (maximum known in chamissonis 200) and with a narrow dark mid-dorsal line instead of the wider band of the Chilean form [from SCHMIDT & WALKER 1943]. 
CommentSynonymy: THOMAS (1977) synonymized Incaspis with Philodryas.

Habitat: fully arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018).

Type species: Philodryas simonsii BOULENGER 1900: 185 is the type species of the genus Incaspis Donoso-Barros, 1974 which was resurrected from synonymy of Philodryas by Arredondo et al. 2020. 
EtymologyNamed after Perry O. Simons (1869-1901), an American who collected in the Neotropics, including Peru (1899-1900) and Bolivia (1901). He was murdered by his guide while crossing the Andes. 
  • Arredondo, J. C., Grazziotin, F. G., Manfrini, G. J. S., Rodrigues, M. T. U., Bonatto, S. L., & Zaher, H. E. D. 2020. Molecular phylogeny of the tribe Philodryadini Cope, 1886 (Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae): Rediscovering the diversity of the South American Racers. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 60, e20206053-e20206053 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1900. Descriptions of new batrachians and Reptiles collected by Mr. P. O. Simons in Peru. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 6 (32): 181-186 - get paper here
  • Demangel, Diego 2016. Reptiles en Chile. Fauna Nativa Ediciones, Santiago, 619 pp - get paper here
  • Dixon, J. R. 1980. The neotropical colubrid snake genus Liophis. The generic concept. Milwaukee Public Museum Contributions in Biology and Geology 31: 1-40 - get paper here
  • Grazziotin, Felipe G.; Hussam Zaher, Robert W. Murphy, Gustavo Scrocchi, Marco A. Benavides, Ya-Ping Zhang and Sandro L. Bonatto 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the New World Dipsadidae (Serpentes: Colubroidea): a reappraisal. Cladistics DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00393.x - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Lehr, E. 2002. Amphibien und Reptilien in Peru. Natur und Tier-Verlag (Münster), 208 pp. - get paper here
  • Lehr, E.; Köhler, G. & Streit, B. 2002. Die Herpetofauna von Mittelperu entlang eines Transektes von der pazifischen Küste bis in die Hochanden (Amphibia et Reptilia). Faun. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 22 (2): 361-392
  • Marx,H. 1958. Catalogue of type specimens of reptiles and amphibians in Chicago Natural History Museum. Fieldiana Zool. 36: 407-496 - get paper here
  • Melo-Sampaio, P. R., Passos, P., Martins, A. R., Moura-leite, J. C., Morato, S. A., Venegas, P. J., Chávez G., Venâncio N.M. & De Souza, M. B. 2020. A phantom on the trees: integrative taxonomy supports a reappraisal of rear-fanged snakes classification (Dipsadidae: Philodryadini). Zoologischer Anzeiger 290: 19-39 [dated 2021 in print version, but 2020 published online] - get paper here
  • Parker, H.W. 1932. Some new or rare reptiles and amphibians from southern Ecuador. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (10) 9: 21-26 - get paper here
  • Peters , J. A. 1960. The snakes of Ecuador; check list and key. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 122: 489-541 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, K. P.; W. F. Walker, Jr. 1943. Three new snakes from the Peruvian Andes. Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago - Zoological Series 24 (28): 325-329 - get paper here
  • Schmidt,K.P. & WALKER Jr. ,W.F. 1943. Snakes of the Peruvian coastal region. Zool. Ser. Field Mus. nat. Hist., Chicago, 24: 297-327 - get paper here
  • Thomas, R. A. 1976. A revision of the South American colubrid snake genus Philodryas Wagler, 1830. PhD Thesis, Texas A & M Univ.: 378 pp.
  • Thomas, R.A. 1977. A New Generic Arrangement for Incaspis and Mainland South American Alsophis and the Status of Two Additional Peruvian Species. Copeia 1977 (4): 648-652 - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Pazmiño-Otamendi G, Salazar-Valenzuela D. 2019. Reptiles of Ecuador: a resource-rich portal, with a dynamic checklist and photographic guides. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1): [General Section]: 209–229 (e178) - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • ZAHER, HUSSAM; JUAN C. ARREDONDO, JORGE H. VALENCIA, ERNESTO ARBELÁEZ, MIGUEL T. RODRIGUES & MARCO ALTAMIRANO-BENAVIDES 2014. A new Andean species of Philodryas (Dipsadidae, Xenodontinae) from Ecuador. Zootaxa 3785 (3): 469–480 - get paper here
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