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Japalura tricarinata (BLYTH, 1853)

IUCN Red List - Japalura tricarinata - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Draconinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Three Keeled Mountain Lizard, Tricarinate forest agama
G: Dreikiel-Bergwaldagame
Chinese: 三棱攀蜥 
SynonymCalotes tricarinatus BLYTH 1853: 650
Tiaris elliotti GÜNTHER 1860: 151 (fide BOULENGER 1885)
Oriotiaris elliotti — GÜNTHER 1864
Oreotiaris tricarinata — ANDERSON 1871: 167
Acanthosaura tricarinata — BOULENGER 1885: 306
Acanthosaura tricarinata — ANNANDALE 1907: 153
Acanthosaura tricarinata — HORA 1926
Japalura tricarinata — SMITH 1935: 169
Japalura tricarinatus — DAS 1996: 44
Japalura tricarinata — MACEY et al. 2000
Oriotiaris tricarinata — KÄSTLE et al. 2013: 427
Japalura tricarinata — WANG et al. 2018 
DistributionN India (Sikkim, Derjeeling, West Bengal), E Nepal, China (Tibet)

Type locality: near Darjeeling  
TypesHolotype: ZSI 5300 "near Darjiling" (= Darjeeling, 27º 02'N; 88º 16'E, West Bengal State, eastern India).
Syntypes: NHMUK 1946.8.28.9, female, Sikkim, Himalaya, coll. v. Schlagintweit; NHMUK 1946.8.13.98–99 (original number NMHUK 1853.8.12.1–2), one male and one female pres. J Hooker [ellioti] 
DiagnosisJapalura tricarinata can be diagnosed from congeners by a combination of the following morphological characteristics: (1) body size small, SVL 42.47–53.43 mm in males, 42.51–61.32 mm in females; (2) tail long, TAL 247.75–298.33% SVL in males, 203.43%–230.49% in fe- males; (3) MD 36–46; (4) T4S 22–28; (5) V-shaped ridges present along body midline from neck to pelvis, formed by enlarged, keeled scales (more distinct in females); (6) dorsolateral ridge present on each side of vertebral ridge, distinct, continuous from neck to pelvis; (7) numerous enlarged, modified scales present postrictal, with one at rear axis of jaw in conical shape, distinctively thick, protruding; (8) tympanum exposed; (9) transverse gular fold absent; (10) gular pouch feeble or absent; (11) ventral head scales smooth or feebly keeled in males; (12) vertebral ridge feebly developed in both sexes, not raised on skin fold or possessing protruding, serrated scales; (13) body coloration in life mostly uniform grass green in males (sometimes speckled with few dark brown spots), light Pratt’s rufous or Pratt’s rufous in females; (14) series of dark chevron patterns represent dorsally along midline in females, but indistinct in males; (15) gular spots absent in both sexes; and (16) distinct dorsolateral stripes absent in males. [from Wang et al. 2018] 
CommentSynonymy mostly after WERMUTH 1967. Schleich and Kästle (1998) revalidated the genus Oriotiaris (erroneously called Oriocalotes in Ananjeva et al. 2017) Günther, 1864 and combined all species with a visible tympanum e.g. tricarinata in this genus, while placing species with a hidden tympanum, e.g. variegata into the genus Japalura (fide Ananjeva et al. 2017). However, Mahony 2009 synonymised Oriotiaris with Japalura.

Distribution: possibly in Bhutan (Lenz 2012).

Type species: Tiaris elliotti GÜNTHER 1860 is the type species of the genus Oriotiaris GÜNTHER 1864. 
  • Anderson, J. 1871. On some Indian reptiles. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1871: 149-211 - get paper here
  • Blyth,E. 1854. Notices and descriptions of various reptiles, new or little-known. Part I. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 22 [1853]: 639-655 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A., Annandale, N., Wall, F. & Regan, C.T. 1907. Reports on a collection of batrachia, reptiles and fish from Nepal and the western Himalayas. Lacertilia. Records of the Indian Museum 1:149—155 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • DENZER, WOLFGANG; ULRICH MANTHEY, PATRICK D CAMPBELL 2019. Catalogue of type specimens of the agamid lizard genus Japalura s. l. (Squamata: Agamidae: Draconinae). Zootaxa 4612 (1): 109-125 - get paper here
  • Gautam, Bivek; Mukesh Kumar Chalise, Kul Bahadur Thapa, and Santosh Bhattarai 2020. Distributional patterns of amphibians and reptiles in Ghandruk, Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 27 (1): 18–28 - get paper here
  • Gruber, U. 1975. Agame Japalura tricarinata aus dem zentralen Nepal-Himalaya. Das Aquarium 1975 (77): 502-505
  • Günther, A. 1864. The Reptiles of British India. London (Taylor & Francis), xxvii + 452 pp. - get paper here
  • Günther,A. 1860. Contributions to a knowledge of the reptiles of the Himalaya mountains. - I. Descriptions of the new species. II. List of Himalayan reptiles, with remarks on their horizontal distribution. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1860: 148-175 - get paper here
  • Hora, S.L. 1926. Notes on the Lizard in the Indian Museum. II. On the unnamed Collection of Lizards of the Genus Agamidae. Records of the Indian Museum 28 (4): 215-220
  • Kästle , W., Rai, K. & Schleich, H.H. 2013. FIELD GUIDE to Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. ARCO-Nepal e.V., 625 pp. - get paper here
  • Lenz, Norbert 2012. Von Schmetterlingen und Donnerdrachen - Natur und Kultur in Bhutan. Karlsruher Naturhefte 4, Naturkundemuseum Karlsruhe, 124 pp.
  • Macey, J. R., J. A. Schulte II, A. Larson, N. B. Ananjeva, Y. Wang, R. Pethiyagoda, N. Rastegar-Pouyani, T. J. Papenfuss 2000. Evaluating trans-Tethys migration: an example using acrodont lizard phylogenetics. Systematic Biology 49 (2): 233-256 - get paper here
  • Manthey U 2008. Agamid lizards of Southern Asia, Draconinae 1. Terralog 7, 160 pp.
  • Manthey U 2010. Agamid Lizards of Southern Asia. Draconinae 2 -Leiolepidinae. Edition Chimaira, Terralog 7b, Frankfurt, 168 pp.
  • Nanhoe, L.M.R., & Ouboter, P.E. 1987. The distribution of reptiles and amphibians in the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri region (Nepal). Zoologische Verhandelingen (240): 1-105 - get paper here
  • Ota,H. 1989. A new species of Japalura (Agamidae: Lacertilia:Reptilia) from Taiwan. Copeia 1989 (3): 569-576 - get paper here
  • Pokhrel, Ganesh Kumar and Sudeep Thakuri 2016. Herpetofaunal diversity in Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal. Our Nature 14 (1): 99-106 - get paper here
  • Shah, K. B. 1995. Enumeration of Habitat, Geographical and Altitudinal Distribution of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal.
  • Smith, M.A. 1935. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptiles and Amphibia, Vol. II. Sauria. Taylor and Francis, London, 440 pp.
  • Swan, L.W., & Leviton, A.E. 1962. The herpetology of Nepal: a history, check list, and zoogeographical analysis of the herpetofauna. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 32 (6) (4.s.): 103-147. - get paper here
  • Venugopal, P.D. 2010. An updated and annotated list of Indian lizards (Reptilia: Sauria) based on a review of distribution records and checklists of Indian reptiles. Journal of Threatened Taxa 2 (3): 725-738. - get paper here
  • Waltner, R.C. 1975. Geographical and altitudinal distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the Himalayas. Cheetal (Dehra Dun, India) 16(1): 17-25; 16(2): 28-36; 16(3): 14-19; 16(4): 12-17.
  • Wang, Kai; Jing Che, Simin Lin, V Deepak, Datta-Roy Aniruddha, Ke Jiang, Jieqiong Jin, Hongman Chen, Cameron D Siler; 2018. Multilocus phylogeny and revised classification for mountain dragons of the genus Japalura s.l. (Reptilia: Agamidae: Draconinae) from Asia. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, , zly034, - get paper here
  • Wang, Kai; Jinlong Ren, Hongman Chen, Zhitong Lyu, Xianguang Guo Ke Jiang, Jinmin Chen, Jiatang Li, Peng Guo, Yingyong Wang, Jing Che 2020. The updated checklists of amphibians and reptiles of China. Biodiversity Science 28 (2): 189-218 - get paper here
  • Wang, Kai; Ke Jiang, V. Deepak, Das Abhijit, Mian Hou, Jing Che, and Cameron D. Siler 2018. On the Occurrences of Japalura kumaonensis and Japalura tricarinata (Reptilia: Sauria: Draconinae) in China. Herpetologica 74 (2): 181-190. - get paper here
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