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Kentropyx striata (DAUDIN, 1802)

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Striped Whiptail
Portuguese: Calango, Lagarto 
SynonymLacerta striata DAUDIN 1802: 247
Centropyx striatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 151
Centropyx decodon COPE 1862: 495
Centropyx Renggerii PETERS 1869: 63
Centropyx striatus — BOULENGER 1885: 340
Centropyx striatus — CUNHA 1961: 110
Kentropyx striatus — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 152
Kentropyx striatus striatus — HOOGMOED 1973: 302
Kentropyx striatus viridicervis — HOOGMOED 1973: 312
Kentropyx striata — GALAGHER & DIXON 1980: 616
Kentropyx striatus — BAUER & GÜNTHER 1994
Kentropyx striata — AVILA-PIRES 1995: 529
Kentropyx striata — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Kentropyx striata — DIRKSEN 2003
Kentropyx striata — HARVEY et al. 2012 
DistributionVenezuela (Apure, Bolivar, Amazonas), Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Trinidad, Tobago ?,
Colombia, Brazil (Para, Amapa, Roraima)

Type locality: Suriname.  
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 4191, female
Holotype: ANSP 9557; Surinam (lectotype fide HOOGMOED 1973) [decodon]
holotype: ZMB 896 [renggerii] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Dorsals large, in longitudinal rows, distinctly larger than, and well demarcated from laterals. Scales around midbody 58-75 (67.0 ± 4.3, n= 42). Femoral pores 12-16 (13.2 ± 1.2, n= 42) in total. No vertebral stripe. At each side two dorsolateral dark bands and two light stripes, at least on anterior part of body. Subdigital lamellae not tuberculate. Toes with poorly developed denticulate fringe (Avila-Pires 1995).

Description. Teiid with maximum SVL in males of 127 mm (RMNH 22665), in females of 107 mm (Gallagher & Dixon, 1992); among material studied, maximum SVL in females 105 mm (MPEG 4318, RMNH 22664). Head 0.22-0.27 (n=41) times SVL, of which 0.25-0.27 in two juvenile males, 0.24-0.27 in adult males, and 0.22-0.24 in adult females; 1.5-1.8 (1.70 ± 0.06, n= 40) times as long as wide; and 1.0-1.2 (1.07 ± 0.05, n= 40) times as wide as high. The high sides, elongate, pointed snout, and distinct canthus rostralis give the head a pyramidal form. Neck slightly narrower than head and body. Body cylindrical. Limbs well developed, forelimbs 0.32-0.39 (0.36 ± 0.02, n= 39) times SVL, hind limbs 0.55-0.7 (0.64 ± 0.04, n= 39) times. Tail round in cross section, tapering toward tip, 2.1-3.0 (2.59 ± 0.17, n= 32) times SVL.
Tongue lanceolate, covered with imbricate, scale-like papillae, with a smooth, bifid tip. Teeth conical anteriorly, posteriad changing to bicuspid and tricuspid.
Rostral pentagonal, about as wide as high, distinctly visible from above. Bordered posteriorly by nasals, which form a medial suture. Each nasal divided by an oblique suture, with nostril in its lower part, directed lateroposteriorly. Frontonasal hexagonal or arrow-head shaped, about as long as wide. A pair of irregular prefrontals, medial suture longer than that between nasals. Frontal roughly hexagonal, about as long as its maximum (anterior) width, sutures with prefrontals usually forming a convex border; laterally in contact with first and second supraoculars (or first, second and third, when an intermediate supraocular occurs). Frontoparietals irregularly pentagonal, distinctly longer than wide, forming a long medial suture. A small scale may bepresent between frontoparietals and interparietal. Interparietal and a pair of parietals irregularly polygonal, followed by two occipitals, with a zig-zag border between them. The five scales show an anteriad divergent, angulate, "U"- shaped contour, and are surrounded by distinctly smaller, polygonal, keeled scales. In large specimens there is a poorly developed ridge along sides of prefrontals, frontal, frontoparietals, parietals, and occipitals. Supraoculars 3-5, posteriorly usually i n contact with a group of small scales, laterally separated from supraciliaries (except anterior one) b y a row of granules. Supraciliaries 3-5, usually four. When three supraciliaries are present, all are elongate; when more, the first two are elongate, the remaining ones short. A very large loreal, in contact with nasal, frontonasal, prefrontal, first supraocular (occasionally not), first supraciliary, preoculars, frenocular or first subocular, and supralabials. Frenocular usually present, small, fused with the lower, elongate preocular, in some specimens absent. One ortwo short preoculars plus a longer one which may be fused to the frenocular. Three, exceptionally four, smooth to broadly keeled suboculars, second longest. Two more-or-less regular series of small, smooth to broadly keeled postoculars, which end in a larger scale at level of supraciliaries. Lower eyelid with an opaque disc with some relatively small, transversely enlarged scales. Pupil round except for a shallow ventral indentation, or with upper and lower sides flattened. Six, occasionally seven, supralabials, five (occasionally six) to below centre of eye; followed to commissure of mouth by relatively small scales. Temporal region with scales relatively small, polygonal, keeled, those on centre of region smaller than those peripherally. One or two rows of larger, elongate, keeled supratemporals. Ear-opening relatively large, round or vertically oval, with smooth margins. Tympanum recessed in a short auditory meatus. All dorsal and lateral head scales juxtaposed and, except for those already noted, smooth.
Mental approximately semicircular. Postmental irregularly pentagonal or heptagonal. Three pairs of large chinshields, plus at each side one or a few smaller, but still relatively large scales, usually in two rows, which can also be considered as chin-shields. Anterior 2-3 chinshields at each side in contact with infralabials. First pair of chinshields in contact medially. Posterior chinshields widely separated by small, convex to broadly keeled scales, which are longer than wide, anteriorly juxtaposed, posteriorly imbricate. They increase in size toward the centre of the area, and decrease again near the gular fold and toward the sides. Infralabials 5-6,4-5 to below centre of eye; followed to commissure of mouth by small scales. Gular and antegular folds present. Between the two, a few rows of larger, flat, distinctly keeled, imbricate, pointed scales, which become larger, in wider rows, posteriad; 11-15 scales in posterior row. Antegular fold very shallow or interrupted medially. Gular and antegular folds extend laterally into, respectively, an antehumeral and an oblique neck fold. Other smaller, irregular folds also may be present on sides of neck.
Scales on nape anteriorly small, convex, hexagonal or rounded, juxtaposed to slightly imbricate, grading into dorsals. On sides of neck scales similar to those on nape, to slightly smaller. Dorsals large, although smaller than ventrals, subhexagonal, flat except for a distinct median keel, imbricate, in 12-16 (13.9 ± 1.1, n= 40) longitudinal and 70-92 (83.2 ± 4.4, n= 40) transverse rows. The keels are aligned and form low longitudinal ridges. Scales on flanks small, roughly rhomboid or phylloid, keeled, slightly imbricate. Ventrals large, phylloid, sharply keeled and mucronate, imbricate, in 14 (mostly) or 16 longitudinaland 31-35 (33.0 ± 0.9, n= 42) transverse rows. Dorsals, laterals and ventrals sharply distinguished. A row of scales of intermediate size may be present both between dorsals and laterals, and between laterals and ventrals. Scales around midbody 58-75 (67.0 ± 4.3, n= 42). Preanal plate in females with scales about similar to ventrals, in males scales feebly keeled to smooth, blunt, laterally with two preanal spurs directed dorsally. Preanal pores absent, femoral pores 12-16 (13.2 ± 1.2, n= 42) in total (males and females), each pore occupying the centre of a group of scales.
Scales on tail approximately rectangular, obliquely keeled, mucronate, imbricate. Arranged in complete transverse rings across tail, and in longitudinal rows. Keels form low longitudinal ridges.
Scales on dorsal aspect of upper arms, anterodorsal aspect of forearms, anterior and ventral aspect of thighs, ventral and part of anterior aspect of lower legs large, subhexagonal, keeled (may be partially smooth anteriorly on thighs), some mucronate, imbricate. Elsewhere scales similar but much smaller, or granular. Fingers with single, transversely enlarged, not tuberculate subdigital lamellae. Toes with single, transversely enlarged, proximally slightly tuberculate subdigital lamellae, smooth under first toe, broadly keeled (except distally) under the others. Lamellae under fourth finger 14-18 (15.8 ± 0.8, n= 83, 42 specimens), under fourth toe 22-28 (24.8 ± 1.3, n= 81). A poorly developed denticulate fringe along outer side of third, fourth and fifth toes (Avila-Pires 1995).

Color in life (presumably, not explicitly stated): A discussion on colour morphs in K. striata is given by Gallagher & Dixon (1992). Among material studied, MPEG 15208 (male, 70 mm SVL) was dark drab (119B) on dorsal surface of head and anterior part of back, verona-brown (223B) on posterior part of back. Dorsolateral stripes brick-red (132A) with black spots. Sides of head gradually changing from brown to white, with pinkish and greenish hues. Some green spots around ear-opening. Flanks verona-brown (223B). Ventral surface of head pearl-white, which gradually turns into salmon (106) on sides and posterior part of belly. Limbs and tail with colours similar to those on adjacent parts of body, with black spots on dorsal surface of tail. Tongue greyish-brown. Iris greyish-brown peripherally, orange-brown around pupil.
Colour description of MPEG 15707-711 was made within one week of their pres-
ervation. Dorsal surface of head either brown with a greenish hue, or mostly grass green. Back grass-green. Dorsolateral band, from eye to anterior part of body, brick-red (132A) to black. Flanks brick-red to dark drab (119B), with some blackish irregular and ill-defined spots on upper part anteriorly, and small, round, pale blue spots. A very pale blue lateral stripe from ear-opening to base of tail. Ventral region pearl-white under head and chest, belly and underside of tail salmon colour (106) in females, peach red (94) in males (Avila-Pires 1995).

Color in preservative: head dorsally dull brown, back olive-brown or blue, sometimes with two paravertebral, interrupted, dark brown stripes. At each side, from dorsally to ventrally, the following sequence (which may not be completely distinct in larger specimens): (a) a dorsolateral dark brown band from posterior corner of eye until about midbody, dorsally bordered at least anteriorly by a faint light blue stripe; (b) a light blue stripe from posterior lower corner of eye until posterior part of body where it fades away; (c) a light or dark brown lateral band which starts at temporal region, is interrupted by ear-opening, and continues again until base of tail, with irregular black spots especially between level of forelimbs and midbody, and in some specimens with light blue dots; (d) a light blue stripe from lower posterior margin of ear-opening to base of hind limbs; and (e) an olive-brown area, either uniform or with light blue dots. Forelimbs either uniformly brown or mottled with brown and light blue. Hind limbs with an olive-brown reticulation surrounding light blue spots. Tail brown or blue, sometimes spotless, frequently with a vertebral row of irregular black spots. Ventral region either mostly light blue but under preanal plate, hind limbs and tail cream, or mostly white with light blue flecks on belly and in some specimens under head (Avila-Pires 1995). 
CommentHybridization: Kentropyx borkiana likely resulted from hybridization between K. calcarata and K. striata (Cole et al. 1995; Reeder et al. 2002).

Distribution: may have been erroneously reported from Bahia and Pernambuco but not recorded from there. Not in Paraguay (Cacciali et al. 2016), although the synonym Centropyx Rengerii has as type locality “Paraguay”. 
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