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Kinosternon sonoriense LE CONTE, 1854

IUCN Red List - Kinosternon sonoriense - Near Threatened, NT

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Higher TaxaKinosternidae (Kinosterninae), Kinosternoidea, Testudines (turtles)
SubspeciesKinosternon sonoriense longifemorale IVERSON 1981
Kinosternon sonoriense sonoriense LE CONTE 1854 
Common NamesE: Sonoran Mud Turtle
longifemorale: Sonoyta Mud Turtle
sonoriense: Sonoran Mud Turtle
S: Casquito de Sonora 
SynonymKinosternon sonoriense LE CONTE 1854: 184
Kinosternum sonoriense LE CONTE 1854
Kinosternum henrici LE CONTE 1860
Cinosternum henrici BOULENGER 1889
Kinosternon sonoriense — STEBBINS 1985: 99
Kinosternon sonoriense — ERNST & BARBOUR 1989: 88
Kinosternon sonoriense — LINER 1994
Kinosternon sonoriense — TTWG 2014
Kinosternon sonoriense — TTWG 2021

Kinosternon sonoriense longifemorale IVERSON 1981
Kinosternon sonoriense longifemorale — ERNST & BARBOUR 1989: 88
Kinosternon sonoriense longifemorale — CROTHER 2000
Kinosternon sonoriense longifemorale — RHODIN et al. 2010
Kinosternon sonoriense longifemorale — TTWG 2014
Kinosternon sonoriense longifemorale — TTWG 2021

Kinosternon sonoriense sonoriense LE CONTE 1854
Cinosternum sonoriense — GÜNTHER 1885: 13
Kinosternon sonoriense sonoriense— ERNST & BARBOUR 1989: 88
Kinosternon sonoriense sonoriense — CROTHER 2000
Kinosternon sonoriense sonoriense — RHODIN et al. 2010
Kinosternon sonoriense sonoriense — TTWG 2014: 350
Kinosternon sonoriense sonoriense — TTWG 2021 
DistributionUSA (Arizona, New Mexico),
Mexico (Sonora, NW Chihuahua)

Type locality: "Tucson, in Sonora," (=Tucson, Pima County), Arizona, U.S.A.

henrici: Type locality: New Mexico;

sonoriense: USA (California [extirpated], Arizona, New Mexico), Mexico (Sonora, NW Chihuahua).
longifemorale: USA (Arizona) - Mexico (Sonora) border region in the upper Sonoyta River basin, in the vicinities of Lukeville.Type locality: "Tucson, in Sonora," (=Tucson, Pima County), Arizona, U.S.A.  
Reproductionoviparous. Exhibits temperature‐dependent sex determination (TSD) fide Cornejo-Páramo et al. 2020 (and references therein). 
TypesHolotype: USNM 21710
Holotype: USNM 21710 [longifemorale]
Holotype: ANSP 83 [henrici] 
CommentNot listed by CONANT & COLLINS 1991.

Distribution: This species used to be present in California but seems to be extinct there now.

Habitat: freshwater (swamps, quiet rivers) 
EtymologyNamed after the type locality. 
  • Bezy, Robert L. and Charles J. Cole 2014. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Madrean Archipelago of Arizona and New Mexico. American Museum Novitates (3810): 1-24 - get paper here
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  • Conant, Roger; Berry, James F. 1978. Turtles of the family Kinosternidae in the Southwestern United States and adjacent Mexico: Identification and distribution. American Museum Novitates (2642): 1-18 - get paper here
  • Cornejo-Páramo, P., Lira-Noriega, A., Ramírez-Suástegui, C. et al. 2020. Sex determination systems in reptiles are related to ambient temperature but not to the level of climatic fluctuation. BMC Evol Biol 20: 103 - get paper here
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  • Hall, D.H. & R.J. Steidl 2007. Movements, Activity, and Spacing of Sonoran Mud Turtles (Kinosternon Sonoriense) in Interrupted Mountain Streams Copeia 2007 (2): 403-412. - get paper here
  • Hensley, Frank R.; Thomas R. Jones, Mandi S. Maxwell, Lisa J. Adams, and Nicole Stevenson Nedella 2010. Demography, Terrestrial Behavior, and Growth of Sonora Mud Turtles (Kinosternon sonoriense) in an Extreme Habitat. Herpetological Monographs 24 (1): 174-193 - get paper here
  • Hulse, A.C. 1976. Growth and Morphometrics of Kinosternon sonoriense (Reptilia, Testudines, Kinosternidae) Journal of Herpetology 10 (4): 341-348. - get paper here
  • Hulse, A.C. 1976. Carapacial and Plastral Flora and Fauna of the Sonora Mud Turtle, Kinosternon sonoriense Le Conte (Reptilia, Testudines, Kinosternidae) Journal of Herpetology 10 (1): 45-48. - get paper here
  • Iverson, J.B. 1976. Kinosternon sonoriense. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 176:1-2. - get paper here
  • Iverson, J.B. 1981. Biosystematics of the Kinosternon hirtipes species group (Testudines: Kinosternidae). Tulane Studies in Zoology and Botany 23: 1-74. - get paper here
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  • Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Madrak, Sheila V.; Drost, Charles A.; Monatesti, Anthony J.; Casper, Dennis; Znari, Mohammed 2012. Optimal egg size in a suboptimal environment: reproductive ecology of female Sonora mud turtles (Kinosternon sonoriense) in central Arizona, USA. Amphibia-Reptilia 33 (2): 161-170 - get paper here
  • Massengill, Jeremy K., B. Ryan Faught and Paul A. Stone. 2014. Kinosternon sonoriense (Sonoran mud turtle) winter mortality. Herpetological Review 45 (2): 316 - get paper here
  • McCord, W.P. & Joseph-Ouni, M. 2005. Chelonian Illustrations #21: Mud turtles of the United States and Morthern Mexico. Reptilia (GB) (41): 80-83 - get paper here
  • McCord,R.D.; Strauss,R.E. & Lowe,C.H. 1990. Morphometric variation in Kinosternon turtles of the Western United States and adjacent Mexico. Journal of Herpetology 24 (3): 297-301 - get paper here
  • Nevárez-de los Reyes; Manuel, David Lazcano, Javier Banda-Leal and Ian Recchio 2014. Notes on Mexican Herpetofauna 22: Herpetofauna of the Continental Portion of the Municipality of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 49(8):105-115 - get paper here
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  • Peterson, C.C. & P.A. Stone 2000. Physiological Capacity for Estivation of the Sonoran Mud Turtle, Kinosternon sonoriense Copeia 2000 (3): 684-700. - get paper here
  • Riedle, J. Daren; Philip C. Rosen, Richard T. Kazmaier, Peter Holm, and Cristina A. Jones 2012. Conservation Status of an Endemic Kinosternid, Kinosternon sonoriense longifemorale, in Arizona. Chelonian Conservation and Biology Dec 2012, Vol. 11, No. 2: 182-189. - get paper here
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