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Kinyongia fischeri (REICHENOW, 1887)

IUCN Red List - Kinyongia fischeri - Near Threatened, NT

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Higher TaxaChamaeleonidae, Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: English common name not available
G: Fischers Chamäleon 
SynonymChamaeleon fischeri REICHENOW 1887: 371
Chamaeleon tornieri WERNER 1902
Bradypodion fischeri — NECAS 1999: 191
Bradypodion fischeri fischeri — BROADLEY & HOWELL 1991: 12
Kinyongia fischeri — TILBURY et al. 2006
Kinyongia fischeri — MARIAUX et al. 2008
Kinyongia fischeri — TILBURY 2010: 369
Kinyongia fischeri — SPAWLS et al. 2018: 268 
DistributionTanzania (Nguru Mts.)

Type locality: Nguru Mts., Tanzania.  
TypesHolotype: ZMB 10744 
DiagnosisDifferential diagnosis: Differs from K. tavetana in the section of its horns (flattened versus triangular); from K. multituberculata by its shorter dorsal crest in males; from K. uluguruensis and K. boehmei by its lateral crest originating above eyes (versus behind) and by its apically convergent horns in males; from K. matschiei by its apically convergent horns in males and by the rudimentary horns in females; and from K. vosseleri by its straighter lateral crest, flattened interorbital scales and very short female horns. 
CommentDistribution: not in the Usambara or Uluguru Mountains.

Type species: Chamaeleon fischeri REICHENOW 1887 is the type species of the genus Kinyongia TILBURY et al. 2006.

Synonymy: Chamaeleon matschiei WERNER 1895 and Chamaeleon fischeri vosseleri NIEDEN 1913 have been removed from the synonymy of K. fischeri.

Subspecies: Both Kinyongia fischeri multituberculatus (NIEDEN 1913) and K.f. uluguruensis have been elevated to species status.

van Hoof et al. (2006) give REICHENOW 1894 as author of B. f. multituberculatum. 
EtymologyNamed after Johann Gustav Fischer (1819-1889), German herpetologist working in Hamburg. The genus name is derived from the KiSwahili word Kinyonga meaning "chameleon". 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Böhme, W. & C. Klaver 1990. Zur Kenntnis von Bradypodion uthmoelleri (MÜLLER, 1938). Salamandra 26 (4): 260-266 - get paper here
  • Broadley, D. G. & HOWELL, K. M. 1991. A check list of the reptiles of Tanzania, with synoptic keys. Syntarsus 1: 1—70
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Glaw, F. 2015. Taxonomic checklist of chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). [type catalogue] Vertebrate Zoology 65 (2): 167–246 - get paper here
  • Lantermann, W. 2000. Begegnungen mit Chamäleons in Ostafrika. Elaphe 8 (1): 67-72
  • Lantermann, W. & Lantermann, Y. 2005. Chamäleons in den Westlichen Usambara-Bergen in Nord-Tansania. Reptilia (Münster) 10 (56): 72-76 - get paper here
  • Loveridge, A. 1957. On a third collection of reptiles taken in Tanganyika by C.J.P. Ionides, Esq. Tanganyika Notes and Records 43: 1-19
  • Mariaux, Jean; Lutzmann, N. & Stipala, Jan 2008. The two-horned chamaeleons of East Africa. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2008, 152, 367–391 - get paper here
  • Menegon M, Tolley KA, Jones T, Rovero F, Marshall AR, Tilbury CR 2009. A new species of chameleon (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae: Kinyongia) from the Magombera forest and the Udzungwa Mountains National Park, Tanzania. African Journal of Herpetology 58 (2): 59-70 - get paper here
  • Necas, Petr 1999. Chameleons - Nature's Hidden Jewels. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt; 348 pp.; ISBN 3-930612-04-6 (Europe)<br />ISBN 1-57524-137-4 (USA, Canada)
  • Nieden, F. 1913. Chamaeleon fischeri Rchw. und seine Unterarten. Sber. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 1913: 231-249.
  • Okajima Y, Kumazawa Y 2010. Mitochondrial genomes of acrodont lizards: timing of gene rearrangements and phylogenetic and biogeographic implications. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10:141 - get paper here
  • Reichenow, A. 1887. Neue Wirbelthiere des Zoologischen Museums in Berlin. Zool. Anz. 10: 369- 372. - get paper here
  • Rovero, F., Menegon, M., Fjeldså, J., Collett, L., Doggart, N., Leonard, C., Norton, G., Owen, N., Perkin, A., Spitale, D., Ahrends, A., Burgess, N. D. 2014. Targeted vertebrate surveys enhance the faunal importance and improve explanatory models within the Eastern Arc Mountains of Kenya and Tanzania. Diversity and Distributions. doi: 10.1111/ddi.12246 - get paper here
  • Spawls, Steve; Kim Howell, Harald Hinkel, Michele Menegon 2018. Field Guide to East African Reptiles. Bloomsbury, 624 pp. - get paper here
  • Tilbury C.R., Tolley K.A. & Branch W.R. 2006. A review of the systematics of the genus Bradypodion (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae), with the description of two new genera. Zootaxa 1363, 23–38 (correction in Zootaxa 1426: 68) - get paper here
  • Tilbury, C. 2010. Chameleons of Africa: An Atlas, Including the Chameleons of Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt M., 831 pp.
  • van Hoof, J. et al. 2006. Kameleons, een fascinerende hobby. Lacerta 64 (5-6): 1-96 - get paper here
  • Werner, F. 1896. Über einige Reptilien aus Usambara (Deutsch-Ostafrika). Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 45:190—194 [1895] - get paper here
  • Werner, F. 1902. Prodromus einer Monographie der Chamäleonten. Zool. Jahrb. Syst. 15: 295- 460. - get paper here
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