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Lachesis acrochorda (GARCIA, 1896)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common NamesS: Verrugosa, Guascama 
SynonymBothrops achrocordus GARCIA 1896: 23
Lachesis acrochorda — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004
Lachesis acrochorda — HOHMEISTER 2004
Lachesis achrocorda — PYRON & BURBRINK 2013
Lachesis acrochorda — WALLACH et al. 2014: 355 
DistributionPanama, Colombia, Ecuador, elevation 0-1000 m

Type locality: "las selvas deI Chocó, á orillas de los rios Atrato, San Juan, Dagua y Telembí y ... el camino de Buenaventura" [= Chocó forests, Atrato, San Juan, Dagua and Telembí riverbanks, and the Buenaventura highway, Chocó, Valle deI Cauca, Cauca and Nariño Dept., W Colombia].  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: nondesignated, location unknown (WALLACH et al. 2014: 347) 
DiagnosisDescription: Head tan brown with black postocular stripes (1–2 scales wide); supralabials usually yellowish tan and spotless; head dorsally marked with irregular spots or “ara-besques”; throat white; body ground color is dark brown to beige usually with 23–31 irregular or incomplete black dorsal rhombuses separated by ivory to dirty white scales, seen later-ally as inverted triangles, and the interior of each rhombus (or triangle) basically the same as the ground color or darker; iris red-brown, becoming darker with age. Ground color in hatchlings and juveniles tan brown to orange-brown, rhombuses or triangles dark brown and usually incomplete, tail pinkish. Head scales are small, barely smooth to tuberculate; dorsals keeled and in 31–39 rows; vertebral and paraverte-bral scale rows very tuberculate, appearing as a vertebral keel; ventral scales in males 204–228, in females 202–221; subcau-dals 46–58 in males, 49–55 in females (Valencia et al. 2016). Valencia et al. (2016) reported maximum total lengths of 2,327 mm for males and 2,342 mm for females in Ecuador. The maximum total length reported for the species is 300 cm (Campbell and Lamar 2004).Lachesis acrochorda and L. stenophrys are externally similar but usually can be distinguished by the latter having 191–209 ventrals (202–228 in L. acrochorda) and usually few if any dark spots on the top of the head (distinctly marked with dark spots and lines or “Ripa’s arabesques” in L. acrochorda; Ripa 1999; Campbell and Lamar 2004). Lachesis acrochordais most similar to L. muta, although Campbell and Lamar (2004) indicated that they differ in body shape (L. muta round in cross-section, L. acrochorda tall and compressed); however, we cannot corroborate this distinction, as our expe-riences indicated that the body shapes of all congeners can vary in response to different factors (from Barrio-Amorós et zl. 2020). 
CommentVenomous!

L. achrocorda was previously considered as a synonym of L. stenophrys. 
EtymologyThe specific name acrochorda comes from the Greek acrochordon (= wart), a reference to the warty dorsal scalation of the species. 
References
  • Barrio-Amorós, Cesar L.; Greivin Corrales, Sylvia Rodríguez , Jaime Culebras, Quetzal Dwyer, Diego Alejandro Flores 2020. The Bushmasters (Lachesis spp.): Queens of the rainforest. An overview of the taxonomy, distribution, natural history, lore, and conservation of the largest vipers in the world. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 27 (3): 358-381 - get paper here
  • Batista A, Mebert K, Miranda M, Garcés O, Fuentes R, Ponce M. 2020. Endemism on a threatened sky island: new and rare species of herpetofauna from Cerro Chucantí, Eastern Panama. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 14(2) [General Section]: 27–46 (e237) - get paper here
  • Campbell, Jonathan A. and William W. Lamar 2004. The Venomous Reptiles of the Western Hemisphere, 2 vols. Comstock (Cornell University Press), Ithaca, NY, 962 pp. [review in Science 305: 182]
  • Carrera, C. et al. 2009. Guía de Campo de los Pequeños Vertebrados del Distrito Metropolitano de Quito (DMQ). Publicación Miscelánea N° 5. Serie de Publicaciones del Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales (MECN) – Fondo Ambiental del MDMQ. 1-89 pp. Imprenta Nuevo Arte. Quito-Ecuador.
  • Castro, F.; Ayerbe, S.; Calderón, J.J. & Cepeda, B. 2005. Nuevo registro para Colombia de Bothrocophias campbelli y notas sobre B. colombianus y B. myersi (Serpentes:Viperidae). Novedades Colombianas 8(1):57-64 - get paper here
  • Castro-Herrera, F. & Vargas-Salinas, F. 2008. Anfibios y reptiles en el departamento del Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Biota Colombiana 9 (2): 251 - 277 - get paper here
  • Fuentes, Rogemif Daniel and Greivin Corrales. 2016. New distribution record and reproductive data for the Chocoan Bushmaster, Lachesis acrochorda (Serpentes: Viperidae), in Panama. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (1): 115–127 - get paper here
  • Garcia,E. 1896. Los Ofidios Venenosos del Cauca. Métodos empíricos y racionales empleados contra los accidentes producidos por la mordedura de esos reptiles. Cali: Librería Colombiana, xv + 102 pp. - get paper here
  • Henao-Duque, Ana María; Greivin Corrales 2015. First report of the reproduction in captivity of the Chocoan Bushmaster, Lachesis acrochorda (García, 1896). Herpetology Notes 8: 315-320 - get paper here
  • Hohmeister, A. 2004. Der zentralamerikanische Buschmeister (Lachesis stenophrys COPE 1876) im Terrarium. Reptilia (Münster) 9 (50): 56-62 - get paper here
  • Pyron, R. Alexander; Frank T. Burbrink 2013. Early origin of viviparity and multiple reversions to oviparity in squamate reptiles. Ecology Letters 17 (1): 13–21 (published online 2013, in print 2014), DOI: 10.1111/ele.12168 - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Pazmiño-Otamendi G, Salazar-Valenzuela D. 2019. Reptiles of Ecuador: a resource-rich portal, with a dynamic checklist and photographic guides. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1): [General Section]: 209–229 (e178) - get paper here
  • Valencia, J. H., K. Garzón-Tello & M. E. Barragán-Paladines 2016. Serpientes venenosas del Ecuador: sistemática, taxonomía, historia natural, conservación, envenenamiento y aspectos antropológicos. Quito, Ecuador, Fundación Herpetológica Gustavo Orcés, Universidad de Texas, Fondo Ambiental Nacional, 652 pp. [review in HR 49 (1): 152, 2018]
  • Valencia-Zuleta A, Jaramillo-Martínez AF, Echeverry-Bocanegra A, Viáfara-Vega R, Hernández-Córdoba O, Cardona-Botero VE, Gutiérrez-Zúñiga J, Castro-Herrera F. 2014. Conservation status of the herpetofauna, protected areas, and current problems in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 8 (2): 1–18 (e87) - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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