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Lampropeltis abnorma (BOCOURT, 1886)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Lampropeltini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Honduran milk snake
G: Pazifik-Dreiecksnatter [oligozona]
G: Honduras-Dreiecksnatter [hondurensis]
S: Falsa Coralillo de Guatemala 
SynonymCoronella formosa var. anomala BOCOURT 1886: 614 (preoccupied)
Coronella formosa abnorma BOCOURT 1886 (nom. subst. pro anomala)
Coronella formosa oligozona BOCOURT 1886
Lampropeltis polyzona blanchardi STUART 1935: 2
Lampropeltis triangulum blanchardi — DUNN 1937: 8
Lampropeltis triangulum abnorma — SMITH 1942: 201
Lampropeltis triangulum abnorma — SMITH 1942: 246
Lampropeltis triangulum oligozona — SMITH 1945: 202
Lampropeltis triangulum blanchardi — LAURENT 1949: 12
Lampropeltis doliata blanchardi — HALL 1951
Lampropeltis doliata oligozona — MERTENS 1956
Lampropeltis triangulum abnorma — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 138
Lampropeltis triangulum oligozona — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Lampropeltis triangulum hondurensis WILLIAMS 1978: 212
Lampropeltis triangulum stuarti WILLIAMS 1978
Lampropeltis triangulum hondurensis — MEHRTENS 1987: 129
Lampropeltis triangulum abnorma — WILLIAMS 1994
Lampropeltis triangulum blanchardi — WILLIAMS 1994
Lampropeltis triangulum hondurensis — WILLIAMS 1994
Lampropeltis triangulum — CAMPBELL 1998
Lampropeltis triangulum hondurensis — HALLMEN 2005
Lampropeltis triangulum stuarti — HERTZ et al. 2009
Lampropeltis triangulum oligozona — SCHMIDT 2011
Lampropeltis triangulum — GUERRA-CENTENO et al. 2012
Lampropeltis triangulum hondurensis — LAITA 2013
Lampropeltis abnorma — RUANE et al. 2014
Lampropeltis triangulum oligozona — ILLESCAS-APARICIO et al. 2016
Lampropeltis polyzona — CHAMBERS & HILLIS 2019
Lampropeltis abnorma — MARTÍNEZ-FONSECA et al. 2024 
DistributionMexico (S Veracruz, SE Guerrero; possibly Chiapas, Oaxaca, Campeche, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Yucatan), Guatemala, Nicaragua, Honduras, W Costa Rica; possibly Belize and El Salvador

previously recognized subspecies of L. triangulum:

abnorma: Guatemala; Type locality, "Haute Vera Paz" (= Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

blanchardi: Mexico (Yucatan); Type locality: "Valladolid Trail near Chichen Itzi, Yucatan, Mexico."

hondurensis: carribbean side of Honduras, Nicaragua, NE Costa Rica; Type locality: "Cukra, Departmento de Zelaya,Nicaragua."

oligozona: Oaxaca, Chiapas (Mexico), Esquintla (Guatemala); Type locality: “Tehuantepec" and "western slopes of Guatemala”.

stuarti: El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, NW Costa Rica (pacific side); Type locality: "Finca Los Cedros (100 m), Tecla, Departmento La Libertad, El Salvador."  
Reproductionoviparous (not imputed, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 1888.0129, adult female, date of collection unknown, collected by M.F.Bocourt
Holotype: USNM 68239, young male [blanchardi]
Holotype: UMMZ 68239 [blanchardi]
Holotype: AMNH 12676, adult female [hondurensis]
Syntypes: MNHN 6083, 4428, 88-126-128; Lectotype: MNHN 6083, adult male (designated by WILLIAMS 1978) [oligozona]
Holotype: SMF 43166, adult female [stuarti] 
CommentSynonymy after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970, WILLIAMS 1994, and RUANE et al. 2014.  Listed as synonym of Lampropeltis triangulum by WALLACH et al. 2014: 359. Chambers and Hillis 2019 consider L. abnorma and L. micropholis as populations within L. polyzona, i.e. “a monophyletic cluster with little resolution.” (but see apparently allopatric distribution in their Figure 3c).

Illustrations: L.t.hondurensis in SCHMIDT (2004). Love (2012) shows a bicephalic L. t. hondurensis.

Distribution: See map in Chambers and Hillis 2019: 190 (Fig. 3). 
EtymologyThe name abnorma is from the Latin meaning "deviating from the type," in apparent reference to its divergence from other members of the species. 
  • Aguilar-López JL, Luría-Manzano R, Pineda E, Canseco-Márquez L 2021. Selva Zoque, Mexico: an important Mesoamerican tropical region for reptile species diversity and conservation. ZooKeys 1054: 127-153 - get paper here
  • Bocourt, M. F. 1886. In A. Duméril, M. F. Bocourt, and F. Mocquard, (1870-1909), Etudes sur les reptiles, p. i-xiv, 1-1012. In Recherches Zoologiques pour servir a l'Histoire de Ia Faune de l'Amérique Centrale et du Mexique. Mission Scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amér Imprimerie Impériale, Paris, Vol. 3 - get paper here
  • Brown, T. W. 2018. Lampropeltis abnorma (Colubridae; Squamata): Documenting a Regurgitated Prey Item from Cusuco National Park, Honduras. Captive & Field Herpetology 2 (1): 25-28 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. 1998. Amphibians and reptiles of northern Guatemala, the Yucatán, and Belize. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, xiii + 380 pp. - get paper here
  • Chambers, E Anne; David M Hillis 2019. The Multispecies Coalescent Over-Splits Species in the Case of Geographically Widespread Taxa. Systematic Biology 69 (1): 184–193 [print version dated 2020] - get paper here
  • Dunn, Emmett Reid 1937. Notes on tropical Lampropeltis. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (353): 1-11 - get paper here
  • Hall, Charles W. 1951. Notes on a small herpetological collection from Guerreo. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 34 (4): 201-212 - get paper here
  • Hallmen, M. 2005. Farb- und Zeichnungszuchten in der Terraristik. Reptilia (Münster) 10 (55): 16-22 - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • HERTZ, A. & VAN DEN BERGHE, E. 2009. Atypical coloration pattern in a specimen of Lampropeltis triangulum stuarti WILLIAMS, 1978, from western Nicaragua [Short Note]. Herpetozoa 22: - get paper here
  • Hilje B, Chaves G, Klank J, Timmerman F, Feltham J, Gillingwater S, Piraino T, Rojas E 2020. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Tirimbina Biological Reserve: a baseline for conservation, research and environmental education in a lowland tropical wet forest in Costa Rica. Check List 16(6): 1633-1655 - get paper here
  • Johnson, Jerry D.; Vicente Mata-Silva, Elí García Padilla, and Larry David Wilson 2015. The Herpetofauna of Chiapas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (3): 272–329. - get paper here
  • Laita, Mark 2013. Serpentine. Abrams and PQ Blackwell, Auckland, New Zealand, 200 unnumbered pages
  • Laurent, R. 1949. Note sur quelques reptiles appartenant à la collection de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique. III. Formes americaines. Bull. Inst. roy. Sci. nat. Belgique, Bruxelles, 25 (9): 1-20 [4]
  • Lillywhite, H.B. 2022. Discovering snakes in wild places. ECO Publishing, Rodeo, NM, 164 pp. - get paper here
  • Martínez-Fonseca JG, Holmes IA, Sunyer J, Westeen EP, Grundler MR, Cerda PA, Fernández-Mena MA, Loza-Molina JC, Monagan IV Jr., Nondorf D, Pandelis GG, Rabosky ARD 2023. A collection and analysis of amphibians and reptiles from Nicaragua with new country and departmental records. Check List 20(1): 58-125 - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 6–62 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. 2015. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed. Zootaxa 3931 (3): 352–386 - get paper here
  • Mehrtens, J.M. 1987. Living snakes of the world in color. Sterling Publ. Co., hic., New York, NY: 480 pp.
  • Nahuat-Cervera, Pedro Enrique 2020. Amphibians and reptiles of the Hobonil Educative Center, Tzucacab, Yucatán, Mexico. Rev. Latinoamer. Herp. 3 (1): 53-65 - get paper here
  • Ortiz-Medina, J. A., Cabrera-Cen , D. I., Nahuat-Cervera, P. E. and Chable-Santos, J. B. 2020. New distributional records for the herpetofauna of Campeche and Yucatan, Mexico. Herpetological Review 51: 83-87. - get paper here
  • Palacios-Aguilar, Ricardo & OSCAR FLORES-VILLELA 2018. An updated checklist of the herpetofauna from Guerrero, Mexico. Zootaxa 4422 (1): 1-24 - get paper here
  • Ruane, Sara; Robert W. Bryson, Jr., R. Alexander Pyron, and Frank T. Burbrink 2014. Coalescent Species Delimitation in Milksnakes (genus Lampropeltis) and Impacts on Phylogenetic Comparative Analyses. Systematic Biology 63 (2): 231-250, doi:10.1093/sysbio/syt099 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, D. 2015. Nattern. Arten und Tipps für Einsteiger. Reptilia (Münster) 20 (115): 28-41 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, T. 2011. Haltung und Nachzucht der Pazifik-Dreiecksnatter, Lampropeltis triangulum oligozona. Reptilia (Münster) 16 (91): 52-57 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1942. Remarks on the Mexican king snakes of the triangulum group. Proc. Rochester Academy of Science 8 (4): 196-207 - get paper here
  • Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144 - get paper here
  • Stuart, L. C. 1935. Studies on neotropical colubrinae. V. A new snake of the genus Lampropeltis from Yucatan. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (309): 1-6 - get paper here
  • Sunyer, Javier 2014. An updated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nicaragua. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1 (2): 186–202. - get paper here
  • Sunyer, Javier & José́ Gabriel Martínez-Fonseca 2023. An updated country checklist to the amphibians and reptiles of Nicaragua. REVISTA NICARAGÜENSE DE BIODIVERSIDAD (100): 1-25 - get paper here
  • Williams K L 1994. Lampropeltis triangulum (Lacepede), milk snake. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 594: 1-10 - get paper here
  • Williams, K. L. 1978. Systematics and natural history of the American milk snake Lampropeltis triangulum. Milwaukee Publ. Mus. Contrib. Biol. Geol. No. 2, 258 pp. - get paper here
  • Williams, K. L. 1988. Systematics and natural history of the American milk snake Lampropeltis triangulum. 2nd ed. Milwaukee Publ. Mus. Contrib. Biol. Geol. - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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