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Laudakia nupta (DE FILIPPI, 1843)

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Agaminae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesLaudakia nupta fusca (BLANFORD 1876)
Laudakia nupta nupta (DE FILIPI 1843) 
Common Namesnupta: Large-scaled (Rock) Agama
fusca: Yellow-headed Rock Agama 
SynonymAgama nupta DE FILIPI 1843: 407
Stellio nuptus — BLANFORD 1876: 317
Stellio carinatus DUMÉRIL 1851 (fide SMITH 1935)
Stellio nuptus — BLANFORD 1881: 676
Agama nupta — BOULENGER 1885: 365
Agama flavicauda WERNER 1897: 264 (fide WERMUTH 1967)
Agama nupta — ALCOCK & FINN 1897
Agama flavicauda — LOVERIDGE 1920: 141
Agama nupta — SMITH 1935: 219
Agama caucasica SCHMIDT 1939
Agama nupta nupta — MINTON 1966: 475
Agama nupta nupta — WERMUTH 1967: 20
Agama nupta nupta — ANDERSON & LEVITON 1969
Laudakia nupta — FRYNTA et al. 1997
Laudakia nupta — BARTS & WILMS 2003
Laudakia nupta nupta — BAIG et al. 2012: 245
Laudakia nupta nupta — MOHAMMED et al. 2017

Laudakia nupta fusca (BLANFORD 1876)
Stellio nuptus var. fuscus BLANFORD 1876: 319
Agama nupta var. fusca — BOULENGER 1885: 366
Agama nupta fusca — MINTON 1966: 92
Agama nupta fusca — WERMUTH 1967: 20
Laudakia fusca — CHEATSAZAN et al. 2008
Laudakia nupta fusca — BAIG et al. 2012
Laudakia fusca — HEIDARI & KAMI et al. 2009
Laudakia fusca — KHAN 2014
Laudakia nupta fusca — SANCHOOLI 2016 
Distributionnupta: E Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan; Type locality: Persepolis [Fars province, Iran].

fusca: S Pakistan, S Iran; Type locality: Kalagán (elevation 3500 feet) and near Jálk (3000 feet), Baluchistan. BAIG et al. 2012 gave “Iran, Sistan-Baluchistan Province near Jalk (3000 f)” as type locality.  
TypesLectotype: BMNH (designated by RASTEGAR-POUYANI & NILSON 2002); Syntypes: MRSN (= MSNTO) R322 (Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Torino); ZSI 6798, ZMB 6078, "Sciraz, Persien", leg. G. Doria.
Syntypes: ZMB 13723, ZMB 54608-09 (was ZMB 13723 A+B), without locality, leg. Schweinfurth [flavicauda]
Lectotype: BMNH (18), designated by Rastegar-Pouyani & Nilson (2002) [fusca]
Syntypes: MNHN-RA 6953 (2163) [Stellio carinatus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (fusca). Size large; head heavy; nostril on canthus rostralis; body moderately depressed; absence of a nuchal fold across the neck; vertebral enlarged scales strongly mucronate and cover most of dorsal part of body; no patch of enlarged mucronate scales on flanks; tail long and has segments of three whorls; callous glands present mostly in males [BAIG et al. 2012].

Diagnosis (nupta). Size large; head heavy; nostril on can- thus rostralis; body moderately depressed; yellowish or reddish brown; vertebral enlarged scales strongly keeled and cover most of dorsal part of body; no patch of enlarged mucronate scales on flanks; tail long and has segments of three whorls; callous glands present mostly in males [BAIG et al. 2012]. 
CommentSynonymy mostly after WERMUTH 1967. BAIG (1992) considers L. fusca as a synonym of L. nupta, Agama nupta fusca has been elevated to full species status by CHEATSAZAN et al. 2008, but was relegated to subspecies status by BAIG et al. 2012. SMITH (1935) did not find any significant difference between L. n. nupta, L. n. fusca and Stellio carinatus and thus placed all three together under L. nupta.

Distribution: See map in SMID et al. 2014 for distribution in Iran. 
EtymologyNamed after the past participle of the Latin verb nūbo, meaning to cover, veil, but as transferred meaning: to wed marry; hence nupta means ‛one who hides herself (perhaps within rock slits)’, but more correctly ‛a bride-woman (who veils herself for bridegroom)’ (Lewis, 1969), hence denotes the beauty and a crown-like crest in the head region of the species, representing a bride crown (Mikaili & Shayegh 2011). 
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