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Leiocephalus cubensis (GRAY, 1840)

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Higher TaxaLeiocephalidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesLeiocephalus cubensis cubensis GRAY 1840
Leiocephalus cubensis gigas SCHWARTZ 1959
Leiocephalus cubensis minor VARONA & GARRIDO 1970
Leiocephalus cubensis pambasileus SCHWARTZ 1959
Leiocephalus cubensis paraphrus SCHWARTZ 1959 
Common NamesE: Cuban Brown Curlytail, Cuban Curlytail Lizard 
SynonymTropidurus (Leiolaemus) cubensis GRAY 1840: 110
Holotropis microlophus COCTEAU & BIBRON 1838 (part.)
Holotropis vittatus HALLOWELL 1856: 151
Liocephalus vittatus — BOULENGER 1885: 163 (part.)
Liocephalus [sic] vittatus — FISCHER 1888: 27
Leiocephalus cubensis — STEJNEGER 1917: 273
Leiocephalus raviceps — COCHRAN 1934: 39 (part.)
Leiocephalus cubensis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 427
Leiocephalus cubensis — PREGILL 1992: 41
Leiocephalus cubensis — RODRÍGUEZ SCHETTINO 1999: 123

Leiocephalus cubensis gigas SCHWARTZ 1959
Leiocephalus cubensis gigas — HEDGES et al. 2019

Leiocephalus cubensis minor VARONA & GARRIDO 1970
Leiocephalus cubensis minor — HEDGES et al. 2019

Leiocephalus cubensis pambasileus SCHWARTZ 1959
Leiocephalus cubensis pambasileus — HEDGES et al. 2019

Leiocephalus cubensis paraphrus SCHWARTZ 1959
Leiocephalus cubensis paraphrus — HEDGES et al. 2019 
DistributionCuba, Isla de la Juventud, Cayos de San Felipe, Archipelago de los Canarreos,
Archipelago de Sabana-Camaguey

cubensis: Cuba; record for Cabo de San Antonio, Peninsula de Guanahacabibes, highly doubtful. Type locality: Cuba; restricted by Schwartz, 1959d, to vicinity of Guanabacoa, La Habana Province, Cuba.

gigas: Isla de la Juventud.

minor: Cayos de San Felipe.

pambasileus: Archipiélago de bs Canarreos.

paraphrus: Jardines de la Reina.

INCERTAE SEDIS: Material from Archipiélago de Sabana-Camagüey unassigned subspecifically.  
TypesHolotype: BMNH XXIII.98a
Holotype: AMNH 81056 [gigas]
Holotype: CZACC = IZ 2754 [minor]
Holotype: AMNH 81068 [pambasileus]
Holotype: AMNH 78005 [paraphrus] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size large (SVL in males to 121 mm, in females to 83 mm); sexual
dichromatism not pronounced, males with a pair of enlarged postanals; no lateral fold; dorsals medium in size, heavily keeled and slightly mucronate, keels in line, sharply turned toward midline; laterals smaller, keels not forming lines; ventrals cycloid, smooth, smaller than dorsals; median dorsal crest scales not greatly enlarged, not attenuate, about equally as well developed as dorsal caudal crest scales, 48-64 in occiput-vent distance; one-half midbody scales 18-30; supraoculars 5-7 (mode 6); loreals 4-12; temporals 10-16; median head scales 4-5; 2-4 preauricular scales enlarged; supraorbital semicircles usually complete; parietals in contact or not; frontal row complete; frontoparietal row complete; tail somewhat compressed. Dorsum unicolor brown or metallic bronzy, at times with yellow or orange dots, with zonation absent or poorly defined, to distinctly longitudinally zonate; sides red to orange with vertical, green lines extending onto venter; a prominent black or brown postorbital blotch which may extend posterior to auricular opening as a series of vertical black bars in lateral fields; throat with dark lines, dashes, dots, or mottlings on bluish, pale yellow, or greenish ground, entire pattern usually much obscured or obliterated by clouding or black stippling; venter immaculate yellow centrally, grading to reddish laterally, or multicolor with yellow, blue, and purple suffusions, or whitish; groin often vivid rust or orange; females generally like males but usually more zonate dorsally, at times with a rather weak herringbone pattern, venter pinkish, lateral fields with (at times) vertical black bars, venter (at times) with scattered, diffuse, brownish dots (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 427). 
CommentFor illustrations see Stejneger, 1917; Barbour and Ramsden, 1919; Schwartz, 1959d; Vogel, 1965; Vogel, 1966. Synonymy after RODRÍGUEZ SCHETTINO 1999. 
  • Alfaro-Juantorena, L.A. & Jiménez-Arcos, V.H. 2017. Leiocephalus cubensis (Cuban Curlytail Lizatd) Sexual display behavior. Herpetological Review 48 (4): 849-850 - get paper here
  • Barbour, T. and C. T. Ramsden. 1919. The herpetology of Cuba. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard Coll. 47: 69-213. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Fischer, J.G. 1888. Über eine Kollektion Reptilien und Amphibien von Hayti. Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst. 5: 23-45. - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1840. Catalogue of the species of reptiles collected in Cuba by W. S. MacLeay, esq.; with some notes on their habits extracted from his MS. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (1) 5: 108-115. - get paper here
  • Hedges SB, Powell R, Henderson RW, Hanson S, and Murphy JC 2019. Definition of the Caribbean Islands biogeographic region, with checklist and recommendations for standardized common names of amphibians and reptiles. Caribbean Herpetology 67: 1–53
  • Kunz, K. 2005. Photogenic herpetofauna. Notes on Cuban Synanthropic species. Reptilia (GB) (43): 47-53 - get paper here
  • Pregill,G.K. 1992. Systematics of the West Indian Lizard Genus Leiocephalus (Squamata: Iguania: Tropiduridae). Misc. Publ. Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. 84: 1-69 - get paper here
  • Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes (ed.) 1999. The iguanid lizards of Cuba. University Press of Florida, 428 pp.
  • Rodríguez-Cabrera, Tomás M.; Alejandro M. Rodríguez González, and Javier Torres 2018. Herpetofauna of Cayo Carenas, Cienfuegos Bay, south-central Cuba. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 25 (1): 13–19 - get paper here
  • Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes, Carlos A. Mancina & Vilma Rivalta González 2013. REPTILES OF CUBA: CHECKLIST AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (144): 1-96 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. 1959. Variation in lizards of the Leiocephalus cubensis complex in Cuba and the Isla de Pinos. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum 4: 97-143. - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Stejneger, L.H. 1917. Cuban amphibians and reptiles collected for the United States National Museum from 1899 to 1902. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 53: 259-291 - get paper here
  • Varona, Luis S.;Garrido, Orlando H. 1970. Vertebrados de los Cayos de San Felipe, Cuba, Inclyendo una nueva especie de Jutía. Poeyana (75): 1-26
  • Vogel, Z. 1965. Herpetologische Beobachtungen auf Kuba. Aquar. und Terrar. 12 (7):235-39.
  • Vogel, Z. 1966. Herpetologische waarnemingen op Cuba (II). Lacerta 24 (8): 59-60. - get paper here
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