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Lepidoblepharis hoogmoedi AVILA-PIRES, 1995

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Higher TaxaSphaerodactylidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Spotted Dwarf Gecko 
SynonymLepidoblepharis hoogmoedi AVILA-PIRES 1995: 294
Lepidoblepharus hoogmoedi — ZOOLOGICAL RECORD
Lepidoblepharis hoogmeedi [sic] — RÖSLER 2000: 90 
DistributionBrazil (Amazonas), N Peru

Type locality: W of Benjamin Constant, Amazonas state, Brasil, elevation 50 m.  
TypesHolotype: MPEG 15984, male; Paratypes.— MPEG 15968 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Dorsals granular. Lamellae under fourth toe 12-14. Mental with a straight to slightly concave posterior margin, without clefts. Postmentals 3-5, larger than adjacent posterior scales. Loreal scales 9-10. Scales around midbody 92-93, ventral scales 32-34 along midventral row, 17-18 in a row at midbody. Maximum SVL 38 mm. Males brown with dark brown spots; a pearl-grey arc on posterior part of head, and at each side a pearl-grey dorsolateral stripe on neck and at level of hind limb. Ventral surface of head, in adult males, with a dull orange hue (Avila-Pires 1995: 294 ff).

Description. Sphaerodactyline gecko with SVL in only known male of 35 mm (MPEG 15984), in females of 38 mm (MPEG 15968). Head 0.21 times SVL, 1.3-1.4 times as long as wide, 1.2-1.4 times as wide as high. Snout short, round, gently sloping toward top of head. Neck slightly narrower than head and body. Body cylindrical. Limbs relatively short, forelimbs 0.26 times SVL, hind limbs 0.37-0.39 times. Tail round i n cross section, tapering toward tip; complete original tail only i n RMNH 26473, where it is 1.2 times SVL.
Tongue wide, narrowing anteriorly into a blunt tip; covered with imbricate, scale-like papillae; tip slightly nicked medially. Teeth minute, conical, subequal.
Rostral very large, distinctly visible from above, with approximately parallel lateral margins, and a shallow, horse-shoe shaped, posterior depression between nostrils; posterior margin roughly straight, slightly indented by postrostrals, with a long median cleft. Postrostrals 4-5 (maybe three in MPEG 15968, not very clear), of which lateral ones (supranasals) much larger than median ones; median postrostrals as large as adjacent scales o n snout. Nostril bordered b y rostral, first supralabial, two postnasals, andlateral postrostral; postnasal near supralabial much larger than upper one,which is slightly larger than adjacent loreal scales. Snout andloreal region covered by relatively small granules, with blunt tips mostly directed posteriorly o n snout, dorsally o n loreal region. Loreal scales 9-10 i n a longitudinal line between postnasals and orbit. Toward posterior part of head, and on supraocular region, the granules are slightly smaller. Most of anterior and upper margin of eye forming a supraciliary flap, with two or three enlarged scales on its border, of which one is much larger than the others. Suboculars 4-5, slightly elongate. Supralabials four, decreasing in size posteriorly, first very large; suture between third and fourth below centre of eye. Ear-opening small, roundish to obliquely oval.
Mental relatively large, roughly trapezoid to semi-circular, with a straight to slightly concave posterior margin; without clefts. Postmentals 3-5, larger than adjacent scales. Scales on chin small, granular; those in contact with infralabials slightly larger and elongate. Infralabials 4-5, first much larger than others, from third on small; suture between third and fourth, or fourth infralabial, below centre of eye. Scales on neck granular dorsally and laterally. Throat with an abrupt transition between an anterior region, with granular scales, and a posterior one, with scales like the ventrals.
Dorsals granular, slightly larger than scales on top of head. Scales on flanks like dorsals, distinctly different from ventrals, which are relatively large, smooth, roundish to hexagonal, imbricate, forming approximately longitudinal and oblique rows. Scales along a midventral line 32-34 between anterior margin of forelimbs and vent; 17-18 ventrals in a transverse row at midbody. Scales around midbody 92-93. Male (MPEG 15984) with an escutcheon area on belly with 56 rhomboid to hexagonal scales. Scales on preanal plate similar to ventrals, except for those on border of vent, which are smaller.
Scales on tail smooth, flat, imbricate, mostly rhomboid;with a short transitional zone from dorsal scales. Underside of tail with a midventral row of enlarged scales; MPEG 15984 shows sequence 2"2'2"2T' + regenerated tail, while in RMNH 26473, which has a complete original tail, the sequence is 1'2" + (1’1”)n. Single midventral scale, proximally, trapezoid, wider than long. Regenerated tail with scales on dorsal surface similar to those on original tail, though slightly wider and more irregular; and with transversely elongate, short midventral scales that frequently have irregular contours.
Forelimbs with anterior and dorsal aspects of upper arms, and anterior and part of dorsal aspects of forearms with smooth, flat, imbricate scales, with round posterior margin; other surfaces covered with granules. Hind limbs with anterior and ventral aspects of thighs, and ventral aspect of lower legs with scales similar to those described for forelimbs, other surfaces covered with granules. Lamellae under fourth finger 9-12, under fourth toe 12-14. Subdigital lamellae transversely enlarged, slightly narrowing distally, mostly undivided but distal ones with a median sulcus. Claws enclosed by an ungual sheath composed of six scales, as typical for the genus (Avila-Pires 1995: 294 ff).

Colour in life of male (holotype, MPEG 15984): dorsally head mars-brown (223A), body raw-umber (223) with darker spots along a paravertebral line and two lateral lines (at each side); a pearl-grey (81) arc on posterior part of head, linking the eyes, plus a dorsolateral stripe along neck and above hindlimbs, and spots along body, all of similar colour. Head and neck ventrally orange-rufous (132C), belly medium-plumbeous (87), escutcheon with white centred scales. Tail with same colour as body. Iris dark-brown with a narrow orange rim around pupil. Tongue white with dark-grey tip.
Females less colourful than male. MPEG 15968, in life, with head dorsally raw-umber (223), back dusky-brown (19) with a faint dorsolateral light stripe; ventral region light dusky-brown (19), with lavender (77) spots and stripes under head; tail dorsally and ventrally sepia (119), velvet-like; iris dark-brown with a narrow orange rim around pupil; tongue white with dark-grey tip. RMNH 26473 dark-brown; a light arc on posterior part of head, connecting the eyes; and a faint dorsolateral light stripe, more vivid near hindlimbs and on base of tail; ventral region dark-brown mixed with some white, under head with bluish-white stripes (Avila-Pires 1995: 294 ff).

Coloration in preservative, L. hoogmoedi presents a general brown colour, distinctly lighter in male than in females. In both sexes dorsum slightly lighter than flanks. In male, a whitish, horse-shoe shaped stripe, linking the eyes, on posterior part of head, is very evident; also from posterior corner of eye starts a dorsolateral light stripe, more evident on neck and above hindlimbs; moreover, some small, light spots on sides of head and neck are present. Females almost homogeneously brown, with a pale, relatively wide, "W"-shaped band on posterior part of head (more visible in RMNH 26473). Ventral region mostly light brown; under head whitish in male, with brown and white stripes in females; escutcheon area in male whitish (Avila-Pires 1995: 294 ff). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is a noun in the genitive case, honoring Dutch herpetologist Marinus Steven Hoogmoed. Marinus was curator of reptiles and amphibians at the National Museum of Natural History (Leiden, The Netherlands) for 38 years (1966–2004) before retiring as research associate at the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi in Belém, Brazil, where he is still very active. 
  • Avila-Pires, T.C.S. 1995. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata). Zoologische Verhandelingen 299: 1-706 - get paper here
  • Avila-Pires, T.C.S.; Hoogmoed, M.S. & Vitt, L.J. 2007. Herpetofauna da Amazônia. Herpetologia no Brasil, pp. 13-43
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • CALDERÓN-ESPINOSA, MARTHA LUCIA & GUIDO FABIAN MEDINA-RANGEL 2016. A new Lepidoblepharis lizard (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae) from the Colombian Guyana shield. . Zootaxa 4067 (2): 215–232 - get paper here
  • RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR, MARCO A. 2015. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. II. Gekkonidae, Phyllodactylidae, Sphaerodactylidae. Zootaxa 3981 (1): 001–055 - get paper here
  • Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A. & Silvana Amaral 2016. Diversity, distribution, and conservation of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) in the Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Biodiversity, 2:1, 195-421 - get paper here
  • Rösler, H. 2000. Kommentierte Liste der rezent, subrezent und fossil bekannten Geckotaxa (Reptilia: Gekkonomorpha). Gekkota 2: 28-153
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