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Lepidodactylus lugubris (DUMÉRIL & BIBRON, 1836)

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Mourning Gecko, Common Smooth-Scaled Gecko
G: Gewöhnlicher Schuppenfingergecko
S: Geco enlutado, tuqueque, salamanquesa
Chinese: 哀鳞趾虎 
SynonymPlatydactylus Lugubris DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1836: 304
Lepidodactylus lugubris — FITZINGER 1843
Amydosaurus lugubris — GRAY 1845
Platydactylus lugubris — CANTOR 1847
Peropus neglectus GIRARD 1858
Hemidactylus Meijeri BLEEKER 1859: 46
Dactyloperus Pomareae FITZINGER 1861
Peripia cantoris GÜNTHER 1864
Gecko Harrieti TYTLER 1865: 548
Gecko lugubris — STEINDACHNER 1867
Peripia Cantoris — THEOBALD 1868
Peropus roseus COPE 1869: 319
Gymnodactylus Caudeloti BAVAY 1869
Peripia cantoris — STOLICZKA 1870: 163
Peripia meyeri GÜNTHER (unjust. emend. of H. Meijeri BLEEKER 1859) 1872
Peripia mysorensis MEYER in PETERS 1874
Peripia ornata MACLEAY 1877: 98
Peripia cantoris — FERGUSON 1877: 12
Peripia lugubris — PETERS & DORIA 1878
Platydactylus (Lepidodactylus) crepuscularis — SAUVAGE 1879
Lepidodactylus crepuscularis — BOCAGE 1881
Gymnodactylus candeloti (sic) BOULENGER 1883
Gehyra (?) neglecta — BOULENGER 1885: 150
Lepidodactylus lugubris — BOULENGER 1885: 165
Lepidodactylus roseus — BOULENGER 1885: 162
Lepidodactylus candeloti — BOULENGER 1885
Lepidodactylus woodfordi BOULENGER 1887: 334
Lepidodactylus ceylonensis — WERNER 1913: 7
Lepidodactylus lugubris — DE ROOIJ 1915: 49
Lepidodactylus divergens TAYLOR 1918: 242
Lepidodactylus woodfordi — TAYLOR 1918: 239
Lepidodactylus woodfordi — TAYLOR 1922
Lepidodactylus divergens — TAYLOR 1922
Gehyra variegata ogasawarasimae OKADA 1930: 188
Peropus variegatus ogasawarasimae — MERTENS 1934
Gehyra variegata ogasawarisimae — NAKAMURA & UÉNO 1963: 90
Gehyra ogasawarisimae — WERMUTH 1965: 36
Gehyra ogasawarasimae — WERMUTH 1965
Lepidodactylus roseus — WERMUTH (?) 1965
Lepidodactylus mysorensis — WELLS & WELLINGTON 1985
Lepidodactylus lugubris — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 240
Lepidodactylus lugubris — COGGER 2000: 728
Gehyra iogasawarasinae [sic] — KUHN & SCHMIDT 2003
Lepidodactylus lugubris — GRISMER 2011
Lepidodactylus cf. lugubris — BROWN et al. 2012
Lepidodactylus cf. lugubris — BROWN et al. 2013
Lepidodactylus lugubris — GRISMER & QUAH 2019 
DistributionAsia: Taiwan, China (incl. Hainan), Chagos Archipelago,
Sri Lanka, India (incl. and Andaman Islands), Seychelles,
Myanmar (= Burma), West Malaysia (Pulau Pinang, Pulau Tioman), Vietnam (Ku Lao Pan Jong Island; BOBROV, pers. comm.), Japan (Ryukyu, Bonin, Ogasawara, Okinawa, Miyako, Yaeyama and Daito Islands), Singapore,
Indonesia (Borneo, Lombok, Sulawesi, Halmahera, Ambon, Kei Islands, Komodo, Flores, Morotai), Philippines (incl. Panay, Luzon, Cebu), Palau, New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago, Nauru,
Solomon Islands [McCoy 2000], Micronesia (Lukunor Atoll)

Oceania: most islands of the Pacific, Fiji Islands, Rotuma, New Caledonia, Loyalty Islands, Vanuatu, Toga, Tegua, Hiu, Mariana Islands, Cook Islands (Roratonga), Tonga, Micronesia (Uman District Islands etc.)

Australia (islands of Cocos [Keeling] atoll, Queensland); Maldive Islands (HR 30: 52)
Western Samoa, Guam, Society Islands,
Northern Mariana Islands (Saipan) (Hileman et al. 2020)
Mascarenes (Rodrigues; fide F. Glaw, pers. comm.)

Introduced into the USA (Hawaii);
Introduced to Mexico (Ahumada-Carrillo & Weatherman 2018)
Introduced into Nicaragua (Sunyer 2014)
Introduced into Costa Rica (Señaris et al. 2017)
Panama (Smith & Grant 1961, Señaris et al. 2017)
Introduced into Brazil (Belém; Señaris et al. 2017, D’Angiolella et al. 2021, Bahia),
Introduced into Ecuador (incl. Galapagos, Señaris et al. 2017),
Introduced into Colombia (most of Pacific coast, San Andres, Providencia, Islas del Rosario, Bolivar, etc., Señaris et al. 2017, Mendoza et al. 2018), Chile (Urra et al. 2020)
Introduced into Suriname (Señaris et al. 2017)
Introduced into Venezuela (Señaris et al. 2017)

Introduced to the Caribbean: Guadeloupe, Grande Terre, Basse Terre, Bahamas (Paradise Island), Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands, Turks & Caicos Islands (Ruhe & Ruhe 2019), Martinique

Type locality: “L’île d’Otaiti” [= Tahiti, Polynesia]  
ReproductionThis species is a complex of parthenogenetic lineages that includes both diploid and triploid forms as a result of hybridization between L. moestus and another species, possibly Lepidodactylus pantai (FUJITA & MORITZ 2009, Radtkey et al. 1995, Karin et al. 2021). Gehyra variegata ogasawarisimae is parthenogenetic (Henkel & Schmidt 1991). 
TypesLectotype: MNHN-RA 5323 (designated by Wells and Wellington, 1985). Wells & Wellington designate the lectotype as the larger of the two syntypes under the number 5323. Brygoo (1991) gave measurements for MNHN 5323 and 5323A, the two specimens that were cited under the number 5323 by Cogger et al. (1983). MNHN 5323 is larger than 5323A in both SVL and total length. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Lepidodactylus species range in size from approximately 35–70 mm in adult maximum SVL. The head is usually weakly depressed, the body is not depressed, but the tail is often depressed. As in all gekkonids, eyelids do not function. The base coloration usually a muted gray or brown. Species are distinguished from other gekkonid geckos by the following combination of characteristics: hyoid without second ceratobranchial cartilages; stapedial formaen absent; scleral ossicles number 14–16; frontal single; parietal paired; nasal bones fused; vomer fused; phalangeal formula 2-3-4-5-3/2-3-4-5-4 (manus/pes); cloacal bones present; eye with vertical pupil; paraphalangeal elements absent; digits broadly dilated at tips with adhesive subdigital lamellae, sometimes divided by a median groove; apical phalanges attached to pad; digits webbed or unwebbed; claws present on digits II–V; digit I well-developed but without claw; dorsum with granular scalation; preanal pores present, in slightly arched pattern; females lay two hard-shelled eggs (Kluge 1967, 1968, Brown and Parker 1977, Russell and Bauer 2008).

Description (woodfordi): Taylor 1918: 239

Description (divergens): Taylor 1918: 242 
CommentSynonymy: See Bauer (1994) for a more detailed discussion of the problems with this species. Lepidodactylus intermedius DAREVSKY 1964 and Lepidodactylus lombocensis MERTENS 1929 have been removed from the synonymy (or subspecies status) of L. lugubris by OTA et al. 2000.

Distribution data not corrected for the removal of Lepidodactylus intermedius DAREVSKY 1964 and Lepidodactylus lombocensis MERTENS 1929. Has been also reported from the Nicobar Islands but is not listed by DAS 1999. Not listed for Costa Rica and Mexico by KÖHLER (2000). McKeown (1996) assumes that L. lugubris was present in Hawaii before the arrival of Europeans. Reports from Mexico have no published support but have been perpetuated in the literature for some time (e.g. in Röll 2002).

Original description in Amarasinghe et al. 2009.

Type species: Platydactylus Lugubris DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1836: 304 is the type species of the genus Lepidodactylus FITZINGER 1843: 19, 98.

Phylogenetics: Lepidodactylus as traditionally recognized is paraphyletic because the morphologically divergent genera Luperosaurus Gray and Pseudogekko Taylor are nested within Lepidodactylus (Heinecke et al. 2012, Stubbs et al. 2017, Oliver et al. 2018, Kraus 2019).

Species groups: The genus Lepidodactylus is divided into three species groups based largely on differences in subdigital toe scansor morphology (Brown & Parker 1977). Species in Group I possess undivided scansors, whereas those in Groups II and III have some or all of their scansors divided. Group II species have divided proximal scansors, with the terminal scansors undivided, whereas Group III species have divided terminal scansors (Stubbs et al. 2017). See also Oliver et al. 2018 for a phylogenetic analysis of Lepidodactylus s.l. 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “lugere” = mourning (adjective “lugubris”) referring to the dull, dusky, gloomy color. 
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